प्रोग्रामन भाषाओं की सूची (वर्गानुसार)

अर्रे भाषाएँ (Array languages)संपादित करें

ऐस्पेक्ट-ओरिएन्टेड भाषाएँ (Aspect-oriented languages)संपादित करें

असेम्बली भाषाएँ (Assembly languages)संपादित करें

लेखन भाषाएँ (Authoring languages)संपादित करें

कमाण्ड लाइन इंटरफेस युक्त भाषाएँ (Command line interface languages)संपादित करें

कम्पाइल की जाने वाले भाषाएँ (Compiled languages)संपादित करें

सहगामी भाषाएँ (Concurrent languages)संपादित करें

इन भाषाओं में ऐसे प्रावधान हैं जो एक साथ कई कार्य ककराने वाले प्रोग्राम लिखने मेंसहायक होती हैं।

आंकड़ा-प्रवाह भाषाएँ (Dataflow languages)संपादित करें

आंकड़ामुखी भाषाएँ (Data-oriented languages)संपादित करें

डेटा-स्ट्रक्चर युक्त भाषाएँ (Data-structured languages)संपादित करें

Assembly languages which statically link data inline with instructions can also be considered data-structured, in the most primitive way.

वर्णनात्मक भाषाएँ (Declarative languages)संपादित करें

ये भाषाएँ किसी समस्या का वर्णन करने के लिये उपयुक्त हैं न कि किसी समाधान या हल के लिये।

इसोटेरिक भाषाएँ (Esoteric languages)संपादित करें

ये भाषाएँ दूसरी प्रोग्रामन भाषाओं की सीमा की जाँच के लिये डिजाइन की गयी होती हैं।

एक्टेंशन भाषाएँ (Extension languages)संपादित करें

ये भाषाएँ किसी दूसरे प्रोग्राम में 'इम्बेड' किये जाने योग्य प्रोग्राम लिखने के लिये बनी हैं।

चौथी पीढ़ी की भाषाएँ (Fourth-generation languages)संपादित करें

फंशनल भाषाएँ (Functional languages)संपादित करें

ये भाषाएँ सभी प्रोग्रामों एवं सबरोटीनों को फंक्शन के रूप में परिभाषित करती हैं।

Interactive mode languagesसंपादित करें

Interactive mode languages act as a kind of shell: expressions or statements can be entered one at a time, and the result of their evaluation is seen immediately.

Interpreted languagesसंपादित करें

Interpreted languages are programming languages which programs may be executed from source code form, by an interpreter. Theoretically, any language can be compiled or interpreted, so the term *interpreted language* generally refers to languages that are commonly interpreted rather than compiled.

Iterative languagesसंपादित करें

Iterative languages are built around or offering generators.

List-based languages – LISPsसंपादित करें

List-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the list data structure.

Little languagesसंपादित करें

Little languages serve a specialized problem domain.

  • apply is a domain-specific language for image processing on parallel and conventional architectures
  • awk can serve as a prototyping language for C, because the syntax is similar
  • Comet is used to solve complex combinatorial optimization problems in areas such as resource allocation and scheduling.
  • SQL has only a few keywords, and not all the constructs needed for a full programming language. Many database management systems extend SQL with additional constructs as a stored procedure language.

Logic-based languagesसंपादित करें

इन्हें भी देखें: [[::Category:Logic programming languages|Category:Logic programming languages]]

Logic-based languages specify a set of attributes that a solution must have, rather than a set of steps to obtain a solution. Examples:

Machine languagesसंपादित करें

Machine languages are directly executable by a computer's CPU. They are typically formulated as bit patterns, usually represented in octal or hexadecimal. Each group of npatterns (often 1 or more bytes) causes the circuits in the CPU to execute one of the fundamental operations of the hardware. The activation of specific electrical inputs (e.g., CPU package pins for microprocessors), and logical settings for CPU state values, control the processor's computation. Individual machine languages are processor specific and are not portable. They are (essentially) always defined by the CPU developer, not by 3rd parties. The symbolic version, the processor's assembly language, is also defined by the developer, in most cases. Since processors come in families which are based on a shared architecture, the same basic assembly language style can often be used for more than one CPU. Each of the following CPUs served as the basis for a family of processors:

Macro languagesसंपादित करें

इन्हें भी देखें: [[::Category:Macro programming languages|Category:Macro programming languages]]

Macro languages embed small pieces of executable code inside a piece of free-form text.

  • cpp (the C preprocessor)
  • m4 (originally from AT&T, bundled with UNIX)
  • PHP
  • SMX, dedicated to web pages

Scripting languages such as Tcl and ECMAScript (ActionScript, DMDScript, ECMAScript for XML, JavaScript, JScript) have been embedded into applications so that they behave like macro languages.

Metaprogramming languagesसंपादित करें

Metaprogramming is writing of programs that write or manipulate other programs (or themselves) as their data or that do part of the work that is otherwise done at run time during compile time. In many cases, this allows programmers to get more done in the same amount of time as they would take to write all the code manually.

Multiparadigm languagesसंपादित करें

Multiparadigm languages support more than one programming paradigm. They allow a program to use more than one programming style. The goal is to allow programmers to use the best tool for a job, admitting that no one paradigm solves all problems in the easiest or most efficient way.

  • Ada (concurrent, distributed, generic (template metaprogramming), imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • ALF (functional, logic)
  • Alma-0 (constraint, imperative, logic)
  • APL (functional, imperative)
  • BETA (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • C++ (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • C# (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), functional, declarative)
  • ChucK (imperative, object-oriented, time-based, concurrent, on-the-fly)
  • Cobra (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), functional, contractual)
  • Common Lisp (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), aspect-oriented (user may add further paradigms, e.g., logic))
  • Corn (concurrent, generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Curl (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
  • Curry (concurrent, functional, logic)
  • D (generic, imperative, functional, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
  • Delphi (generic, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), metaprogramming)
  • Dylan (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
  • ECMAScript (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based))
  • Eiffel (imperative, object-oriented (class-based), generic)
  • F# (functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), language-oriented)
  • Fantom (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
  • FPr (function-level, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Harbour
  • Hop
  • J (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • LabVIEW (dataflow, visual)
  • Lasso (macro, object-oriented (prototype-based), procedural, scripting)
  • Lava (object-oriented (class-based), visual)
  • Leda (functional, imperative, logic, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Lua (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based))
  • Metaobject protocols (object-oriented (class-based, prototype-based))
  • Mythryl (functional, imperative)
  • Nemerle (functional, object-oriented (class-based), imperative, metaprogramming)
  • Objective Caml (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Oz (functional (evaluation: eager, lazy), logic, constraint, imperative, object-oriented (class-based), concurrent, distributed)
  • Object Pascal (imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Perl (imperative, functional (can't be purely functional), object-oriented, class-oriented, aspect-oriented (through modules))
  • PHP (imperative, object-oriented)
  • Pliant (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Poplog (functional, imperative, logic)
  • ppC++ (imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Prograph (dataflow, object-oriented (class-based), visual)
  • Python (functional, object-oriented (class-based), imperative)
  • R
  • REBOL (functional, imperative, object-oriented (prototype-based), metaprogramming (dialected))
  • ROOP (imperative, logic, object-oriented (class-based), rule-based)
  • Ruby (functional, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Scala (functional, object-oriented)
  • Seed7 (imperative, object-oriented, generic)
  • SISAL (concurrent, dataflow, functional)
  • Spreadsheets (functional, visual)
  • Tcl (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
    • Tea (functional, imperative, object-oriented (class-based))
  • Windows PowerShell (functional, imperative, pipeline, object-oriented (class-based))
  • XL (concept programming approach)

Numerical analysisसंपादित करें

Non-English-based languagesसंपादित करें

Object-oriented class-based languagesसंपादित करें

Class-based Object-oriented programming languages support objects defined by their class. Class definitions include member data. Message passing is a key concept (if not the key concept) in Object-oriented languages.

Polymorphic functions parameterized by the class of some of their arguments are typically called methods. In languages with single dispatch, classes typically also include method definitions. In languages with multiple dispatch, methods are defined by generic functions. There are exceptions where single dispatch methods are generic functions (e.g. Bigloo's object system).

Multiple dispatchसंपादित करें

Single dispatchसंपादित करें

Object-oriented prototype-based languagesसंपादित करें

Prototype-based languages are object-oriented languages where the distinction between classes and instances have been removed:

Off-side rule languagesसंपादित करें

Off-side rule languages are those where blocks are formed, indicated, by their indentation.

Procedural languagesसंपादित करें

Procedural programming languages are based on the concept of the unit and scope (the data viewing range of an executable code statement). A procedural program is composed of one or more units or modules, either user coded or provided in a code library; each module is composed of one or more procedures, also called a function, routine, subroutine, or method, depending on the language. Examples of procedural languages include:

Reflective languagesसंपादित करें

Reflective languages let programs examine and possibly modify their high level structure at runtime. This is most common in high-level virtual machine programming languages like Smalltalk, and less common in lower-level programming languages like C. Languages and platforms supporting reflection:

Rule-based languagesसंपादित करें

Rule-based languages instantiate rules when activated by conditions in a set of data. Of all possible activations, some set will be selected and the statements belonging to those rules will be executed. Examples of rule-based languages include:

Scripting languagesसंपादित करें

"Scripting language" has two apparently different, but in fact similar meanings. In a traditional sense, scripting languages are designed to automate frequently used tasks that usually involve calling or passing commands to external programs. Many complex application programs allow users to implement custom functions by providing them with built-in languages. Those which are of interpretive type, are often called scripting languages.

More recently many of these applications have chosen to "build in" traditional scripting languages, such as Perl or Visual Basic, but there are quite a few "native" scripting languages still in use. Many scripting languages are compiled to bytecode and then this (usually) platform independent bytecode is run through a virtual machine (compare to Java).

Stack-based languagesसंपादित करें

इन्हें भी देखें: [[::Category:Stack-oriented programming languages|Category:Stack-oriented programming languages]]

Stack-based languages are a type of data-structured language that are based upon the stack data structure.

Synchronous languagesसंपादित करें

इन्हें भी देखें: [[::Category:Synchronous programming languages|Category:Synchronous programming languages]]

Synchronous programming languages are optimized for programming reactive systems, systems that are often interrupted and must respond quickly. Many such systems are also called realtime systems, and are found often in embedded uses. Examples:

Syntax handling languagesसंपादित करें

These languages assist with generating lexical analzyers and parsers for Context-free grammars.

Visual languagesसंपादित करें

इन्हें भी देखें: [[::Category:Visual programming languages|Category:Visual programming languages]]

Visual programming languages let users specify programs in a two-(or more)-dimensional way, instead of as one-dimensional text strings, via graphic layouts of various types.

Some dataflow programming languages are also visual languages.

Wirth languagesसंपादित करें

Computer scientist Niklaus Wirth designed and implemented several influential languages.

XML-आधारित भाषाएँसंपादित करें

These are languages based on or that operate on XML. Although the big-boy equivalents of Oracle/PostgreSQL/MSSQL don't yet exist for XML, there are languages to navigate through it and its more tree-oriented structure.

इन्हें भी देखेंसंपादित करें