राजकुमार फ़िलिप, एडिनबर्ग के ड्यूक
राजकुमार फ़िलिप, एडिनबर्घ के ड्यूक, (अंग्रेज़ी: Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh) (जन्म से ग्रीस और डेनमार्क के राजकुमार फ़िलिप १० जून १९२१़ को)[fn 1] यूनाइटेड किंगडम की महरानी एलिज़ाबेथ द्वितीय के पति हैं। वह किसी ब्रिटिश शासक के शासनकाल में सर्वाधिक समय तक पटराजा रहे हैं। साथ ही वो ब्रिटिश राज परिवार के सबसे वृद्ध पुरुष सदस्य भी हैं।
|एडिनबर्घ के ड्यूक|
मार्च 2015 में राजकुमार फिलिप
|जन्म||10 जून 1921|
मॉन रेपोस, कोर्फू, यूनानी साम्राज्य
|जीवनसंगी||एलिज़ाबेथ द्वितीय (वि॰ 1947)|
|पिता||ग्रीस और डेनमार्क के राजकुमार ऐंड्र्यु|
|माता||बैटेनबर्ग की राजकुमारी|
|हस्ताक्षर||राजकुमार फिलिप के हस्ताक्षर|
ग्लुक्सबर्ग राजघराने के सदस्य फिलिप का जन्म यूनानी और डैनिश राज परिवारों में हुआ था। उनका जन्म यूनान (ग्रीस) में हुआ था लिक्न बाल्यावस्था के दौरान ही उनके परिवार को देश से निष्कासित कर दिया गया। फ्रांस, जर्मनी और यूनाइटेड किंगडम से शिक्षा प्राप्त करने के बाद वो १८ वर्ष की उम्र में सन् १९३९ में ब्रिटिश शाही नौसेना में शमिल हो गये। १९३४ में पहली बार मिलने के बाद जुलाई १९३४ से ही उन्होंने अपनी १३ वर्षीय दूर की रिश्तेदार राजकुमारी एलिज़ाबेथ (कालांतर में महारानी एलिज़ाबेथ) से पत्राचार शुरु कर दिया था। दूसरे विश्वयुद्ध के दौरान उन्होंने नौसेना की भूमघ्य और प्रशांत टुकड़ियों में अपनी सेवाएँ दीं थीं।
युद्धोपरांत, जॉर्ज षष्टम ने फिलिप को अपनी बेटी एलिज़ाबेथ से विवाह की अनुमती दे दी। उनकी सगाई के आधिकारिक घोषणा से पूर्व ही उन्हें अपने यूनानी और डैनिश शाही पदवियाँ त्यागनी पड़ी और पूर्ण रूप से सामान्य ब्रिटिश नागरिक बनना पड़ा। इसके बाद उन्होंने अपने ननिहाल का माउंटबेटेन उपनाम रख लिया। सगाई के पाँच महीनों के बाद उन्होंने २० नवंबर १९४७ को एलिज़ाबेथ से शादी कर ली। शादी से पहले महाराजा जॉर्ज षष्टम ने उन्हें ब्रिटिश शाही पदवियों और अलंकरणों से सम्मानित किया। उन्हें पुकारने की शैली "हिज़ रोयल हाइनेस" और एडिनबर्घ के ड्यूक की उपाधि दी गई। 1952 में एलिज़ाबेथ के महारानी बनने पर फिलिप ने कमांडर के पद पर पहुंच जाने के बाद सक्रिय सैन्य सेवा छोड़ दी। उनकी पत्नी ने उन्हें सन् १९५७ में ब्रिटिश राजकुमार बना दिया।
शुरुवाती जीवनसंपादित करें
Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora, Cecilie, and Sophie. He was baptised into the Greek Orthodox Church. His godparents were Queen Olga of Greece (his paternal grandmother) and the Mayor of Corfu.
Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, who, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten during the First World War. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).
The war went badly for Greece, and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate, and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others. The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, and five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life. The British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip being carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark.
Philip was first educated at an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "rugged, boisterous ... but always remarkably polite" boy. In 1928, he was sent to Britain to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was placed in an asylum after being diagnosed with schizophrenia, and his father moved to a small flat in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Berthold, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun school in Scotland. After two terms at Salem, Philip moved to Gordonstoun. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband (Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse), her two young sons and her mother-in-law were killed in an air crash at Ostend; Philip, then sixteen years old, attended the funeral in Darmstadt. The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of cancer of the bone marrow.
नौसेना व युद्धकालीन सेवाएँसंपादित करें
After leaving Gordonstoun in 1939, Prince Philip joined the Royal Navy, graduating the next year from the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, as the best cadet in his course. During the Second World War, he continued to serve in the British forces, while two of his brothers-in-law, Prince Christopher of Hesse and Berthold, Margrave of Baden, fought on the opposing German side. He was commissioned as a midshipman in January 1940. Philip spent four months on the battleship HMS Ramillies, protecting convoys of the Australian Expeditionary Force in the Indian Ocean, followed by shorter postings on HMS Kent, on HMS Shropshire and in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). After the invasion of Greece by Italy in October 1940, he was transferred from the Indian Ocean to the battleship HMS Valiant in the Mediterranean Fleet.
Among other engagements, Philip was involved in the Battle of Crete, and was mentioned in despatches for his service during the Battle of Cape Matapan, in which he controlled the battleship's searchlights. He was also awarded the Greek War Cross of Valour. Duties of lesser glory included stoking the boilers of the troop transport ship RMS Empress of Russia. He was promoted to sub-lieutenant after a series of courses at Portsmouth in which he gained the top grade in four out of five sections of the qualifying examination. In June 1942, he was appointed to the V and W class destroyer and flotilla leader, HMS Wallace, which was involved in convoy escort tasks on the east coast of Britain, as well as the allied invasion of Sicily.
Promotion to lieutenant followed on 16 July 1942. In October of the same year he became first lieutenant of HMS Wallace, at 21 years old one of the youngest first lieutenants in the Royal Navy. During the invasion of Sicily, in July 1943, as second in command of HMS Wallace, he saved his ship from a night bomber attack. He devised a plan to launch a raft with smoke floats that successfully distracted the bombers allowing the ship to slip away unnoticed. In 1944, he moved on to the new destroyer, HMS Whelp, where he saw service with the British Pacific Fleet in the 27th Destroyer Flotilla. He was present in Tokyo Bay when the instrument of Japanese surrender was signed. In January 1946, Philip returned to the United Kingdom on the Whelp, and was posted as an instructor at HMS Royal Arthur, the Petty Officers' School in Corsham, Wiltshire.
In 1939, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth toured the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During the visit, the Queen and Earl Mountbatten asked Philip to escort the King's two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who were Philip's third cousins through Queen Victoria, and second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark. Elizabeth fell in love with Philip and they began to exchange letters when she was thirteen. Eventually, in the summer of 1946, Philip asked the King for his daughter's hand in marriage. The King granted his request, provided that any formal engagement be delayed until Elizabeth's twenty-first birthday the following April. By March 1947, Philip had abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles, had adopted the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family, and had become a naturalised British subject.[fn 2] The engagement was announced to the public on 10 July 1947. Though Philip appeared "always to have regarded himself as an Anglican", and had attended Anglican services with his classmates and relations in England, and throughout his Royal Navy days, Archbishop of Canterbury Geoffrey Fisher wanted to "regularise" Philip's position by officially receiving him into the Church of England, which he did in October 1947. The day preceding his wedding, King George VI bestowed the style His Royal Highness on Philip and, on the morning of the wedding, 20 November 1947, he was made the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich of Greenwich in the County of London.
Philip and Elizabeth were married in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey, recorded and broadcast by BBC radio to 200 million people around the world. However, in post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for any of the Duke of Edinburgh's German relations to be invited to the wedding, including Philip's three surviving sisters, all of whom had married German princes, some of them with Nazi connections. After their marriage, the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh took up residence at Clarence House. Their first two children were born: Prince Charles in 1948 and Princess Anne in 1950.
Philip returned to the navy after his honeymoon, at first in a desk job at the Admiralty, and later on a staff course at the Naval Staff College, Greenwich. From 1949, he was stationed in Malta (residing at Villa Guardamangia) after being posted as the first lieutenant of the destroyer HMS Chequers, the lead ship of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla in the Mediterranean Fleet. On 16 July 1950, he was promoted lieutenant commander and given command of the frigate HMS Magpie. He was promoted to commander in 1952, but his active naval career ended in July 1951.
With the King in ill health, Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh were both appointed to the Privy Council on 4 November 1951, after a coast-to-coast tour of Canada. At the end of January 1952, Philip and his wife set out on a tour of the Commonwealth. On 6 February 1952, when they were in Kenya, Elizabeth's father died and she became queen. It was Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth at Sagana Lodge, and the royal party immediately returned to the United Kingdom.
महारानी के पतिसंपादित करें
The accession of Elizabeth to the throne brought up the question of the name of the royal house. The Duke's uncle, Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, advocated the name House of Mountbatten, as Elizabeth would typically have taken Philip's last name on marriage; however, when Queen Mary, Elizabeth's paternal grandmother, heard of this suggestion, she informed the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who himself later advised the Queen to issue a royal proclamation declaring that the royal house was to remain known as the House of Windsor. Churchill's strong personal antipathy to Lord Mountbatten, whom he considered a dangerous and subversive rival who had lost India, may have contributed to this. The Duke privately complained, "I am nothing but a bloody amoeba. I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."
On 8 February 1960, several years after the death of Queen Mary and the resignation of Churchill, the Queen issued an Order in Council declaring that the surname of male-line descendants of the Duke and the Queen who are not styled as Royal Highness, or titled as Prince or Princess, was to be Mountbatten-Windsor. While it seems the Queen had "absolutely set her heart" on such a change and had it in mind for some time, it occurred only eleven days before the birth of Prince Andrew (19 February), and only after three months of protracted correspondence between the constitutional expert Edward Iwi (who averred that, without such a change, the royal child would be born with "the Badge of Bastardy") and the Prime Minister Harold Macmillan (who attempted, ultimately unsuccessfully, to rebuff Iwi).
After her accession to the throne, the Queen also announced that the Duke was to have "place, pre-eminence and precedence" next to her "on all occasions and in all meetings, except where otherwise provided by Act of Parliament". This meant the Duke took precedence over his son, the Prince of Wales, except, officially, in the British parliament. In fact, however, he attends Parliament only when escorting the Queen for the annual State Opening of Parliament, where he walks and sits beside her.
Contrary to rumours over the years, the Queen and Duke are said by insiders to have had a strong relationship throughout their marriage, despite the challenges of Elizabeth's reign. The Queen referred to Prince Philip in a speech on the occasion of her Diamond Jubilee in 2012 as her "constant strength and guide".
इक्कीसवीं शताब्दीसंपादित करें
During his wife's Golden Jubilee in 2002, the Duke was commended by the Speaker of the British House of Commons for his role in supporting the Queen during her reign. The Duke of Edinburgh's time as royal consort exceeds that of any other consort in British history; however, Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (his mother-in-law), who died aged 101, was the consort with the longest lifespan.
In April 2008, Philip was admitted to the King Edward VII Hospital for "assessment and treatment" for a chest infection, though he walked into the hospital unaided and recovered quickly, and was discharged three days later to recuperate at Windsor Castle. In August, the Evening Standard reported that he was suffering from prostate cancer. Buckingham Palace, which usually refuses to comment on rumours of ill health, claimed that the report was an invasion of privacy and issued a statement denying the story. The newspaper retracted the report and admitted it was untrue.
In June 2011, in an interview marking his 90th birthday he said that he would now slow down and reduce his duties, stating that he had "done [his] bit". His wife, the Queen, gave him the title Lord High Admiral for his 90th birthday. While staying at the royal residence at Sandringham, Norfolk, on 23 December 2011, the Duke suffered chest pains and was taken to the cardio-thoracic unit at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, where he underwent successful coronary angioplasty and stenting. He was discharged on 27 December.
On 4 June 2012, during the celebrations in honour of his wife's Diamond Jubilee, Philip was taken from Windsor Castle to the King Edward VII Hospital, London, suffering from a bladder infection. He was released from hospital on 9 June. After a recurrence of infection in August 2012, while staying at Balmoral Castle, he was admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary for five nights as a precautionary measure. In June 2013, Philip was admitted to the London Clinic for an exploratory operation on his abdomen, spending 11 days in hospital. On 21 May 2014, the Prince appeared in public with a bandage on his right hand after a "minor procedure" was performed in Buckingham Palace the preceding day.
He is the longest-lived male member of the British royal family. The record for the longest-lived male descendant of Queen Victoria is currently held by Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg (the Duke of Connaught's grandson) who lived to be 95 years, 6 months and 5 days old. Prince Philip would surpass this record on 15 December 2016.
व्यक्तित्व और छविसंपादित करें
Philip played polo until 1971, when he started to compete in carriage driving, a sport which he helped expand; the early rule book was drafted under his supervision. He was a keen yachts sailor, striking up a friendship in 1949 with Uffa Fox in Cowes. He and the Queen regularly attended Cowes Week in HMY Britannia. His first airborne flying lesson took place in 1952; by his 70th birthday he had accrued 5,150 pilot hours. He was presented with Royal Air Force wings in 1953. In April 2014, it was reported that an old British Pathe newsreel film had been discovered of Philip's 1962 two-month flying tour of South America. Filmed sitting alongside Philip at the aircraft's controls was his co-pilot Peter Middleton, the grandfather of the Duke's granddaughter-in-law, Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.
He has painted with oils, and collected artworks, including contemporary cartoons, which hang at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Sandringham House, and Balmoral Castle. Hugh Casson described Philip's own artwork as "exactly what you'd expect ... totally direct, no hanging about. Strong colours, vigorous brushstrokes."
In 1979, when Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip were guests of US President Jimmy Carter, Prince Philip was approached by White House butler Lynwood Westray and another unnamed butler. Westray asked him "Your majesty, would you like a cordial?", and Prince Philip responded, "I'll take one if you'll let me serve you". "Oh my God, this had never happened before," said Westray. "There we were standing there. I was holding the glasses and my buddy was holding the liqueurs and we looked at each other, and I said 'If that's the only way you'll have it, we'll go along with it.' And the prince served us what he was having, and the three of us had a drink and a conversation. It was an honour to let him do it."
Over his sixty years as royal consort, Philip has become famous for making remarks that were often construed as being offensive or stereotypical in nature. Some of them were immediately interpreted as gaffes; but other awkward observations were construed by apologists as merely odd, off-colour, and often funny. In his own words, comments attributed to Prince Philip have contributed to the perception that he is "a cantankerous old sod". The historian David Starkey has described him as a kind of "HRH Victor Meldrew". For example, in May 1999 British newspapers accused Philip of insulting deaf children at a pop concert in Wales by saying, "No wonder you are deaf listening to this row." Later Philip wrote, "The story is largely invention. It so happens that my mother was quite seriously deaf and I have been Patron of the Royal National Institute for the Deaf for ages, so it's hardly likely that I would do any such thing." During a state visit to the People's Republic of China in 1986, in a private conversation with British students from Xi'an's North West University, Philip joked, "If you stay here much longer, you'll go slit-eyed." The British press reported on the remark as indicative of racial intolerance, but the Chinese authorities were reportedly unconcerned. Chinese students studying in the UK, an official explained, were often told in jest not to stay away too long, lest they go "round-eyed". His comment had no effect on Sino-British relations, but it shaped his own reputation.
उपाधियाँ, शैलियाँ, सम्मान व कुल-चिह्नसंपादित करें
Philip has held a number of titles throughout his life. Originally holding the title and style of a prince of Greece and Denmark, Philip abandoned these royal titles prior to his marriage, and was thereafter created a British duke, among other noble titles. It was not, however, until the Queen issued Letters Patent in 1957 that Philip was again titled as a prince.
When addressing the Duke of Edinburgh, as with any male member of the royal family except the monarch, the rules of etiquette are to address him the first time as Your Royal Highness, and thereafter as Sir.
सम्मान और सम्मानजनक सैन्य नियुक्तियाँसंपादित करें
The Duke of Edinburgh was appointed by King George VI to the Order of the Garter on 19 November 1947, the eve of his wedding. Since then, Philip has received 17 different appointments and decorations in the Commonwealth, and 48 from foreign states. The inhabitants of some villages on the island of Tanna, Vanuatu also worship Prince Philip as a god; the islanders possess portraits of the Duke and hold feasts on his birthday.
Upon his wife's accession to the throne in 1952, the Duke was appointed Admiral of the Sea Cadet Corps, Colonel-in-Chief of the British Army Cadet Force, and Air Commodore-in-Chief of the Air Training Corps. The following year, he was appointed to the equivalent positions in Canada, and made Admiral of the Fleet, Captain General Royal Marines, Field Marshal, and Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the United Kingdom. Subsequent military appointments were made in New Zealand and Australia.
To celebrate his 90th birthday, the Queen appointed him Lord High Admiral of the Royal Navy (the highest rank in the organisation anyone other than the sovereign can hold) and Canada appointed him to the highest ranks available in all three branches of the Canadian Armed Forces.
|नाम||जन्म||विवाह||पोते-पोती||बच्चों के पोते पोती|
|Prince Charles, Prince of Wales||14 November 1948||29 July 1981
Divorced 28 August 1996
|Lady Diana Spencer||Prince William, Duke of Cambridge||जॉर्ज, कैम्ब्रिज के राजकुमार|
शार्लोट, कैम्ब्रिज की राजकुमारी
|Prince Henry of Wales|
|9 April 2005||Camilla Parker Bowles|
|Princess Anne, Princess Royal||15 August 1950||14 November 1973
Divorced 28 April 1992
|Mark Phillips||Peter Phillips||Savannah Phillips|
|Zara Tindall||Mia Tindall|
|12 December 1992||Timothy Laurence|
|Prince Andrew, Duke of York||19 February 1960||23 July 1986
Divorced 30 May 1996
|Sarah Ferguson||Princess Beatrice of York|
|Princess Eugenie of York|
|Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex||10 March 1964||19 June 1999||Sophie Rhys-Jones||Lady Louise Windsor|
|James, Viscount Severn|
Philip is the oldest living great-great-grandchild of Queen Victoria, as well as her oldest living descendant following the death of Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg on 5 May 2012. Through his descent from the British royal family, he is in the line of succession to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms.
In July 1993, through mitochondrial DNA analysis of a sample of Prince Philip's blood, British scientists were able to confirm the identity of the remains of several members of Empress Alexandra of Russia's family, several decades after their 1918 massacre by the Bolsheviks. Prince Philip was then one of two living great-grandchildren in the female line of Alexandra's mother Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the other being his sister Sophie, who died in 2001.
संदर्भ ग्रंथसंपादित करें
- Selected Speeches – 1948–55 (1957)
- Selected Speeches – 1956–59 (1960)
- Birds from Britannia (1962) (published in the United States as Seabirds from Southern Waters)
- Wildlife Crisis with James Fisher (1970)
- The Environmental Revolution: Speeches on Conservation, 1962–1977 (1978)
- Competition Carriage Driving (1982) (published in France 1984, second edition 1984, revised edition 1994)
- A Question of Balance (1982)
- Men, Machines and Sacred Cows (1984)
- A Windsor Correspondence with Michael Mann (1984)
- Down to Earth: Collected Writings and Speeches on Man and the Natural World 1961–87 (1988) (paperback edition 1989, Japanese edition 1992)
- Survival or Extinction: A Christian Attitude to the Environment with Michael Mann (1989)
- Driving and Judging Dressage (1996)
- Thirty Years On, and Off, the Box Seat (2004)
- Royal Australian Navy 1911–1961 Jubilee Souvenir issued by authority of the Department of the Navy, Canberra (1961)
- The Concise British Flora in Colour विलियम कैब्ले मार्टिन द्वारा, ईबरी प्रेस/ माइकल जोसेफ (1965)
- Kurt Hahn हर्मन रोह्र्स और हिलेरी टुन्स्टाल बेहेरेन्स द्वारा (1970)
- The Art of Driving मैस्क पेप द्वारा (1982)
- National Maritime Museum Guide to Maritime Britain कीथ व्हीटली द्वारा, (2000)
- The Royal Yacht Britannia: The Official History रिचर्ड जॉन्स्टन द्वारा, कॉनवे मैरीटाइम प्रेस (2003)
- 1953: The Crowning Year of Sport जोनाथन राइस द्वारा, (2003)
- British Flags and Emblems ह्राहम ब्राटराम द्वारा, टकवेल प्रेस (2004)
- Chariots of War रॉबर्ट हॉबसन द्वारा, उलरिक प्रकाशन (2004)
- RMS Queen Mary 2 Manual: An Insight into the Design, Construction and Operation of the World's Largest Ocean Liner। स्टीफन पाएन द्वारा, हेन्स प्रकाशन (2014)
- ग्रेगोरी कैलेंडर के अनुसार उनका जन्म १० जनवरी २९२१ को हुआ था। १ मार्च १९२३ तक यूनान में जूलियन कैलेंडर का प्रयोग होता था जिसमें यह दिन २८ मई १९२१ को पड़ता है।
- In 1957, it was established by a ruling in Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover  1 All ER 49, that all descendants of Sophia of Hanover, including Philip, were already naturalised British subjects under the terms of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705.
- लीस्क, डेविड (19 अप्रैल 2009). "Prince Philip beats the record for longest-serving consort". द स्कॉट्समैन. एडिनबर्घ, यूके.
- Canadian Heritage; Daily Telegraph; Hello Magazine; Sky News; Official website of the British monarchy, all retrieved 10 June 2011
- हिघम, चार्ल्स; मोस्ली, रॉय (1991), Elizabeth and Philip: The Untold Story, सिगविक और जैक्सन, पृ॰ 73 नामालूम प्राचल
|आईएसबीएन=की उपेक्षा की गयी (मदद)
- Brandreth, p. 56
- Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings
- Brandreth, pp. 58–59
- "News in Brief: Prince Andrew's Departure", The Times: 12, 5 December 1922
- Heald, p. 31; Vickers, pp. 176–178
- Rocco, Fiammetta (13 December 1992). "A strange life: Profile of Prince Philip". The Independent. London. अभिगमन तिथि 22 May 2010.
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- Prince Philip quoted in Brandreth, p. 72
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- Naval career, Official website of the British Monarchy, अभिगमन तिथि 7 May 2010
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- Royal Naval Reserve (RNR) officers 1939–1945 – M, Unithistories.com, अभिगमन तिथि 12 October 2008
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- Smith, David (28 December 2003), "Prince Philip's war heroics come to light after 60 years", द गार्डियन, London, अभिगमन तिथि 12 October 2008
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- The Times, 10 July 1947, p. 4
- Boothroyd, Basil (1971). Prince Philip: An Informal Biography. McCall. पपृ॰ 45–47. नामालूम प्राचल
|आईएसबीएन=की उपेक्षा की गयी (मदद)
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- Heald, p. 86
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- London Gazette: , 15 August 1950. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
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- Prince Philip: The Man At The Queen's Side, 5 June 2012 http://www.itv.com/news/2012-06-05/prince-philip-the-man-at-the-queens-side/
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- British Paper Retracts Story Claiming Prince Philip Has Prostate Cancer, Fox News, 8 August 2008
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- सन्दर्भ त्रुटि:
<ref>का गलत प्रयोग;
princeनाम के संदर्भ में जानकारी नहीं है।
- Debrett's: section on everyday Etiquette: royalty
- Squires, Nick (10 June 2007), Is Prince Philip an island god?, London, UK: BBC, अभिगमन तिथि 12 October 2008
- Heald, p. 111
- Heald, pp. 264–267
- Brandreth, pp. 407–408; Heald, pp. 264–267
- The Duke of Edinburgh appointed Lord High Admiral, royal.gov.uk; accessed 10 February 2015.
- Office of the Prime Minister of Canada (10 June 2011). "PM announces the appointment of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh to the highest ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces". Queen's Printer for Canada. अभिगमन तिथि 10 June 2011.
आगे पढ़ेंसंपादित करें
- ब्रैंडरेथ, गाइल्स (2004). Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage. लंडन: सेंचुरी. आईएसबीएन 0-7126-6103-4
- हील्ड, टिम (1991). The Duke: A Portrait of Prince Philip. लंडन: हॉडर व स्टॉघ्टन. आईएसबीएन 0-340-54607-7
- लेसी, रॉबर्ट (2002) Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, लंडन: लिटिल, ब्राउन, आईएसबीएन 0-316-85940-0
- विकर्स, ह्युगो (2000). Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece. लंडन: हैमिश हैमिल्टन. आईएसबीएन 0-241-13686-5
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- Official website of the British Monarchy: The Duke of Edinburgh
- Duke of Edinburgh Award
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