"लॉस एंजेलिस" के अवतरणों में अंतर

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[[Image:LosAngeles-Plaza-1869.jpg|thumb|right|375px|१८६९ का सिटी प्लाजा]]
लॉस एंजेल्स तटीय क्षेत्र सबसे पहले हजारो वर्ष पूर्व [[तोंगवा]] एवं [[चुमाश]] (मूल अमरीकियों की प्रजातियां) लोगों से आबाद हुआ था। यहां पहुंचने वाला पहला [[यूरोप|यूरोपीय]] १५४२ में आनेवाला [[पुर्तगाल|पुर्तगाली]] खोजी नाविक [[जुआन रोड्रिग्स कैबरिलो]], था जिसने इसे [[स्पेन साम्राज्य]] के लिए देवताओं का शहर घोषित किया।; हलाकि उसने यहां कोई बस्ती नहीं बसाई।<ref>विलार्ड, सी. डी., ''द हेराल्ड्स हिस्ट्री ऑफ लॉस एंजेल्स'' (लॉस एंजेल्स: किंग्सले-बर्न्स, १९०१): २२.</ref> उसके बाद यहां का बाहरी दुनिया से संपर्क दूसरी बार २२७ साल बाद तब हुआ जब [[गैस्पर दि पोर्ताला]], एवं [[जुआन क्रेस्पी]] नाम के [[फ्रांस]] के दो [[इसाई मिशनरी]] २ अगस्त १७६९ को यहां पहुंचे। क्रेस्पी को ही पहले पहल इस क्षेत्र को बसाने की बात सूझी।<ref>[http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/la/historic/crespi.html फादर क्रेस्पी इन लॉस एंजेल्स]</ref>
== भूगोल ==
 
=== टोपोग्राफी ===
 
लास एंजेल्स की स्थालाकृति काफी विषम है, इसका कुल क्षेत्रफल लगभग ४९८.३ वर्गमील (१,२९०.६ किमी²), जिसमे ४६९.१ वर्गमील (१,२१४.९ किमी²) स्थल एवं २९.२ वर्गमील (७५.७ किमी²) जलीय हिस्सा है। इस लिहाज से क्षेत्रफल के अनुसार यह [[संयुक्त राज्य अमरीका]] का चौदहवां सबसे बडा शहर है।<ref>[http://www.city-data.com/top8.html टॉप हंड्रेड सिटीज विद लार्जेस्ट लैंड एरिया]</ref> The city extends for 44 miles (71 km) longitudinally and for 29 miles (47 km) latitudinally. The perimeter of the city is 342 miles (550 km). It is the only major city in the United States bisected by a mountain range.
 
[[Image:Viewfromsky.jpg||right|thumb|300px|View of the [[Palos Verdes]] Peninsula with Los Angeles in the distance]]
 
The highest point in Los Angeles is Mount Lukens, also called Sister Elsie Peak. Located at the far reaches of the northeastern [[San Fernando Valley]], it reaches a height of 5,080 ft (1,548 m). The major river is the [[Los Angeles River]], which begins in the [[Canoga Park, Los Angeles, California|Canoga Park]] district of the city and is largely seasonal. The river is lined in concrete for almost its entire length as it flows through the city into nearby [[Vernon, California|Vernon]] on its way to the [[Pacific Ocean]].
 
=== भूगर्भ ===
 
Los Angeles is subject to [[earthquake]]s due to its location in the [[Pacific Ring of Fire]]. The geologic instability produces numerous fault lines both above and below ground, which altogether cause approximately 10,000 earthquakes every year.<ref>[http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/facts.php Earthquake Facts]</ref> One of the major fault lines is the [[San Andreas Fault]]. Located at the boundary between the [[Pacific Plate]] and the [[North American Plate]], it is predicted to be the source of Southern California's next big earthquake.<ref>[http://www.physorg.com/news70114196.html San Andreas Fault Set for the Big One]</ref> Major earthquakes to have hit the Los Angeles area include the 1994 [[Northridge earthquake]], the 1987 [[Whittier Narrows earthquake]], the [[1971 San Fernando earthquake]] near [[Sylmar, Los Angeles, California|Sylmar]], and the [[1933 Long Beach earthquake]]. Nevertheless, all but a few quakes are of low intensity and are not felt.<ref>[http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learning/kids/facts.php Earthquake Facts]</ref> Parts of the city are also vulnerable to Pacific Ocean [[tsunami]]s; harbor areas were damaged by waves from the [[1960 Valdivia earthquake|Valdivia earthquake]] in 1960.<ref>[http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/web_tsus/19600522/damage.htm May 22, 1960 Tsunami from NOAA]</ref>
 
=== जलवायु ===
 
The city is situated in a [[Mediterranean climate]] or Dry-Summer Subtropical zone ([[Köppen climate classification]] ''Csb'' on the coast, ''Csa'' inland), USDA Zones 8-11, experiencing mild, somewhat wet winters and warm to hot summers. The prevalent warm southerly airflow and the blocking effect of mountains to the north give the city a much warmer climate than would be expected. The average annual temperature is 18.86°C (around 66 °F)<ref>GISS average temperature data, GHCN Climate averages 1971 - 2000</ref>, much higher than comparable coastal locations at the same distance from the equator elsewhere such as [[Sydney]] or [[Cape Town]]. Breezes from the [[Pacific Ocean]] tend to keep the beach communities of the Los Angeles area cooler in summer and warmer in winter than those further inland; summer temperatures can sometimes be as much as 18 °F (10°C) warmer in the inland communities compared to that of the coastal communities. A few coastal "micro-climates" have never recorded a temperature below freezing. Coastal areas also see a phenomenon known as the "[[marine layer]]," a dense cloud cover caused by the proximity of the ocean that helps keep the temperatures cooler throughout the year. When the marine layer becomes more common and pervades farther inland during the months of May and June, it is called May Gray or [[June Gloom]].<ref>[http://meteora.ucsd.edu/cap/gloom.html May Gray / June Gloom]</ref>
 
[[Image:LA Echo.JPG|thumb|right|300px|[[Echo Park, Los Angeles, California|Echo Park]] as seen with [[Arecaceae|Palm Trees]]]]
 
Temperatures in the summer can exceed 90°F (32°C), but average summer daytime highs in downtown are 82°F (27°C), with overnight lows of 63°F (17°C). Winter daytime high temperatures reach around 65°F (18°C), on average, with overnight lows of 48°F (10°C) and during this season rain is common. The warmest month is August, followed by July and then September. This somewhat large case of [[seasonal lag]] is caused by the influence of the ocean and its latitude of 34° north.
 
The median temperature in January is 57°F (13°C) and 73°F (22°C) in August. The highest temperature recorded within city borders was 119.0°F (48.33°C) in [[Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California|Woodland Hills]] on [[July 22]], [[2006]];<ref>Pool, Bob. "In Woodland Hills, It's Just Too Darn Hot." ''Los Angeles Times'' July 26, 2006, B1.</ref> the lowest temperature recorded was 18.0°F (−7.8°C) in 1989, in [[Canoga Park, Los Angeles, California|Canoga Park]]. The highest temperature recorded for Downtown Los Angeles was 112.0°F (44.4°C) on [[June 26]] [[1990]], and the lowest temperature recorded was 28.0°F (−2.0°C) on [[January 4]] [[1949]].<ref>National Weather Service website</ref>
 
[[Rain]] occurs mainly in the winter and spring months (February being the wettest month), with great annual variations in storm severity. Los Angeles averages 15 [[inch]]es (385 mm) of precipitation per year. Tornado warnings are also issued, which are extraordinarily rare downtown, though waterspouts are seen during severe storms at beaches. [[Snow]] is extraordinarily rare in the city basin, but the mountainous slopes within city limits typically receive snow every year. The greatest snowfall recorded in downtown Los Angeles was 2.0 inches (5 cm) on [[January 15]], [[1932]].<ref>Burt, Christopher. ''Extreme Weather: A Guide and Record Book''. New York: Norton, 2004: 100.</ref>
<!--Infobox begins-->{{Infobox Weather |single_line=Yes |location=Los Angeles, California (downtown)
|Jan_Hi_°F = 65 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F = 90
|Feb_Hi_°F = 66 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F = 92
|Mar_Hi_°F = 68 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F = 93
|Apr_Hi_°F = 70 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F = 96
|May_Hi_°F = 73 |May_REC_Hi_°F = 99
|Jun_Hi_°F = 76 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F = 104
|Jul_Hi_°F = 84 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F = 103
|Aug_Hi_°F = 82 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F = 102
|Sep_Hi_°F = 81 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F = 110
|Oct_Hi_°F = 77 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F = 104
|Nov_Hi_°F = 73 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F = 96
|Dec_Hi_°F = 68 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F = 92
|Year_Hi_°F = 73 |Year_REC_Hi_°F = 110
|Jan_Hi_°C = 18 |Jan_REC_Hi_°C = 32
|Feb_Hi_°C = 18 |Feb_REC_Hi_°C = 33
|Mar_Hi_°C = 20 |Mar_REC_Hi_°C = 33
|Apr_Hi_°C = 21 |Apr_REC_Hi_°C = 35
|May_Hi_°C = 22 |May_REC_Hi_°C = 37
|Jun_Hi_°C = 24 |Jun_REC_Hi_°C = 40
|Jul_Hi_°C = 29 |Jul_REC_Hi_°C = 39
|Aug_Hi_°C = 27 |Aug_REC_Hi_°C = 39
|Sep_Hi_°C = 27 |Sep_REC_Hi_°C = 43
|Oct_Hi_°C = 25 |Oct_REC_Hi_°C = 40
|Nov_Hi_°C = 22 |Nov_REC_Hi_°C = 35
|Dec_Hi_°C = 20 |Dec_REC_Hi_°C = 33
|Year_Hi_°C = 22 |Year_REC_Hi_°C = 43
|Jan_Lo_°F = 48 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F = 28
|Feb_Lo_°F = 49 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F = 34
|Mar_Lo_°F = 50 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F = 38
|Apr_Lo_°F = 53 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F = 41
|May_Lo_°F = 56 |May_REC_Lo_°F = 43
|Jun_Lo_°F = 58 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F = 50
|Jul_Lo_°F = 63 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F = 54
|Aug_Lo_°F = 63 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F = 51
|Sep_Lo_°F = 61 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F = 50
|Oct_Lo_°F = 58 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F = 46
|Nov_Lo_°F = 53 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F = 40
|Dec_Lo_°F = 50 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F = 30
|Year_Lo_°F = 55 |Year_REC_Lo_°F = 28
 
|Jan_Precip_inch = 2.7
|Feb_Precip_inch = 3.1
|Mar_Precip_inch = 2.2
|Apr_Precip_inch = 1.3
|May_Precip_inch = 0.3
|Jun_Precip_inch = 0.1
|Jul_Precip_inch = 0
|Aug_Precip_inch = 0
|Sep_Precip_inch = 0.2
|Oct_Precip_inch = 0.4
|Nov_Precip_inch = 1.1
|Dec_Precip_inch = 2.5
|Year_Precip_inch = 14
 
|जनवरी_न्यूनतम_°C = ८ |जनवरी_सर्वाधिक_न्यूनतम_°C = -२
|Feb_Lo_°C = 9 |Feb_REC_Lo_°C = 1
|Mar_Lo_°C = 10 |Mar_REC_Lo_°C = 3
|Apr_Lo_°C = 11 |Apr_REC_Lo_°C = 5
|May_Lo_°C = 13 |May_REC_Lo_°C = 6
|Jun_Lo_°C = 14 |Jun_REC_Lo_°C = 10
|Jul_Lo_°C = 16 |Jul_REC_Lo_°C = 12
|Aug_Lo_°C = 17 |Aug_REC_Lo_°C = 10
|Sep_Lo_°C = 16 |Sep_REC_Lo_°C = 10
|Oct_Lo_°C = 14 |Oct_REC_Lo_°C = 8
|Nov_Lo_°C = 11 |Nov_REC_Lo_°C = 4
|Dec_Lo_°C = 10 |Dec_REC_Lo_°C = -1
|Year_Lo_°C = 12 |Year_REC_Lo_°C = -2
 
|Jan_Precip_cm =6
|Feb_Precip_cm = 7
|Mar_Precip_cm = 5
|Apr_Precip_cm = 3.3
|May_Precip_cm = 0.8<!--Converted from inches & rounded-->
|Jun_Precip_cm = 0.2<!--Converted from inches & rounded-->
|Jul_Precip_cm = 0
|Aug_Precip_cm = 0
|Sep_Precip_cm = 0.5
|Oct_Precip_cm = 1
|Nov_Precip_cm = 2
|Dec_Precip_cm = 6
|Year_Precip_cm = 35
|source =weatherbase.com<ref name=climate>{{cite web |url=http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=159227 |title=Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Los Angeles, California, United States of America |accessmonthday=Jun 19 |accessyear=2007}}</ref>|accessdate=Jun 2007}}<!--Infobox ends-->
 
=== वनस्पति ===
 
The Los Angeles area is rich in native plant species due in part to a diversity in habitats, including beaches, wetlands, and mountains. The most prevalent botanical environment is [[coastal sage scrub]], which covers the hillsides in combustible [[California chaparral and woodlands|chaparral]]. Native plants include: [[California poppy]], [[matilija poppy]], [[toyon]], [[Coast Live Oak]], and giant wild rye grass. Many of these native species, such as the [[Helianthus nuttallii|Los Angeles sunflower]], have become so rare as to be considered endangered. Though they are not native to the area, the official tree of Los Angeles is the tropical Coral Tree and the official flower of Los Angeles is the Bird of Paradise, [[Strelitzia reginae]].<ref>[http://www.sandiegozoo.org/CF/plants/species_detail.cfm?ID=130 San Diego Zoo]</ref>
 
=== पारिस्थितिक मुद्दे ===
 
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; width:235px;"
|-
|<!--column1-->[[Image:LosAngelesSmog.jpg|227px]]
|<!--column2-->[[Image:Aab Pasadena Highway Los Angeles.jpg|200px]]
|-
|<!--column1-->A view of Los Angeles covered in<br> [[smog]] from [[Mulholland Drive]].
|<!--column2-->[[Smog]] on Pasadena Freeway, downtown Los Angeles.
|}<!--end wikitable-->
 
Owing to geography, heavy reliance on [[automobile]]s, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from [[air pollution]] in the form of [[smog]]. The [[Los Angeles Basin]] and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to [[Inversion (meteorology)|atmospheric inversion]], which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, [[locomotive]]s, [[shipping]], manufacturing, and other sources.<ref>[http://www.laweekly.com/index.php?option=com_lawcontent&task=view&id=8115&Itemid=122 How Smog Forms in Los Angeles]</ref> Unlike other large cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (381&nbsp;mm) of rain each year. Pollution accumulates over multiple consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low emissions vehicles.<ref> [http://www.driveclean.ca.gov/en/gv/driveclean/bguides.asp Driveclean from the California Government web site]</ref>
 
As a result, pollution levels have dropped in recent decades. The number of Stage 1 smog alerts has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 annual report of the [[American Lung Association]] ranks the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution.<ref name="shortTermPollutedCities">[http://lungaction.org/reports/sota06_table2.html People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Short-Term Particle Pollution.] [[American Lung Association]]. Retrieved on [[January 5]], [[2007]].</ref><ref name="yearRoundPollutedCities">[http://lungaction.org/reports/sota06_table2a.html People at Risk In 25 U.S. Cities Most Polluted by Year-Round Particle Pollution.] [[American Lung Association]]. Retrieved on [[January 5]], 2007.</ref> In addition, the [[groundwater]] is increasingly threatened by [[Methyl tert-butyl ether|MTBE]] from [[filling station|gas stations]] and [[perchlorate]] from [[Rocket propellant|rocket fuel]]. With pollution still a significant problem, the city continues to take aggressive steps to improve air and water conditions.<ref>Lopez, Theresa Adams. "{{PDFlink|[http://www.portoflosangeles.org/Press/REL_Air_Quality_Update_2-16-06.pdf Air Quality Programs at the Port of Los Angeles saw Refinement in 2005 with Focus on Ramping up in 2006]}}." ''[[Port of Los Angeles]] (News Release).'' [[February 17]], [[2006]].</ref><ref>Staff Writer. "[http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?ContentID=4180 Air Quality Protections Take Off]." ''[http://www.environmentaldefense.org/ Environmental Defense].'' [[December 6]], [[2004]].</ref>
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