"मैराथन" के अवतरणों में अंतर

589 बैट्स् जोड़े गए ,  8 वर्ष पहले
शुरू में मैराथन की लंबई नत्थी नहीं की गई क्योंकि सभी धावक उसी रास्ते पर दौड़ें यही ज़्यादा ज़रूरी था। पहले के कुछ ओलंपिक खेलों में मैराथन दौड़ें किसी तय दूरी की नहीं होती थीं, पर लगभग {{convert|40|km|mi|sp=uk}},<ref name='Bryant'>जे ब्रायंट, 100 साल बाद भी दौड़ते हुए, ''मैराथन न्यूज़'' (2007)</ref> की थीं, जो कि मैराथन से एथेंस के बीच के लंबा सपाट रस्ते की लंबाई है। हर दौड़ की अपनी अपनी लंबाई होती थी।
 
मई 1921 में [[International Amateur Athletic Federation]] (IAAF) नें मैराथन की मानक लंबाई तय की।{{Cite web|url=http://www.european-athletics.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6235&Itemid=2|title=The Marathon journey to reach 42.195km |date=25 April 2008 |publisher=european-athletics.org|accessdate=2009-07-23}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|last=Martin|first=David E.|coauthors=Roger W. H. Gynn|title=The Olympic Marathon |publisher=Human Kinetics Publishers |date=May 2000|page=113|isbn=978-0880119696}}</ref> at a distance of 42.195&nbsp;kilometres (26 miles 385 yards). Rule 240 of their Competition Rules specifies the metric version of this distance.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.iaaf.org/mm/Document/imported/42192.pdf |title=IAAF Competition Rules 2008 |pages=195 |format=pdf |publisher=[[International Association of Athletics Federations|IAAF]]|accessdate=2009-04-20}}</ref> This seemingly arbitrary distance was that adopted for the marathon at the [[1908 Summer Olympics]] in [[London]]. At a meeting of the [[International Olympic Committee]] in [[The Hague]] in May 1907 it was agreed with the [[British Olympic Association]] that the 1908 Olympics would include a marathon of about 25 miles or 40 kilometres.<ref name='BOC'>British Olympic Council Minutes</ref> In November 1907 a route of about that distance was published in the newspapers, starting at [[Windsor Castle]] and finishing at the Olympic Stadium, the [[White City Stadium|Great White City Stadium]] in [[Shepherd's Bush]] in London.<ref name='ISOH'>. Bob Wilcock, The 1908 Olympic Marathon, Journal of Olympic History, Volume 16 Issue 1, March 2008</ref> There were protests about the final few miles because of tram-lines and cobbles, so the route was revised to cross the rough ground of [[Wormwood Scrubs]]. This lengthened the route, as did plans to make the start {{convert|700|yd|m}} from [[Queen Victoria]]'s statue by [[Windsor Castle]], and it was decided to fix the distance at {{convert|26|mi}} to the stadium, plus a lap of the track (586 yards, 2 feet),<ref name='ISOH'/> using the Royal Entrance as the marathon tunnel, and finishing in front of the Royal Box. For the official Trial Marathon on 25 April 1908, organized by the Polytechnic Harriers, the start was on ‘The Long Walk’&nbsp;– a magnificent avenue leading up to [[Windsor Castle]] in the grounds of [[Windsor Great Park]]. For the Olympic Marathon itself the start was on the private East Terrace of [[Windsor Castle]], with the permission of [[King Edward VII]], so that the public would not interfere with the start.<ref name='ISOH'/> The [[Mary of Teck|Princess of Wales]] and her children drove from their home at [[Frogmore]] on the far side of [[Windsor Great Park]] to watch the start of the race.<ref name='ISOH'/><ref name='diary'>The Princess of Wales' private diary and press reports</ref> Shortly before the Games opened it was realized that the Royal Entrance could not be used as the marathon entrance—it was raised to permit easy descent by the royal party from their carriages, and did not open onto the track—so an alternative entrance was chosen, diagonally opposite the Royal Box. A special path was made just outside the [[Franco British Exhibition]] ground so that the distance to the stadium remained 26 miles. The finishing line was left unchanged, but in order that the spectators, including [[Alexandra of Denmark|Queen Alexandra]], could have the best view of the final yards, the direction of running was changed to "right-hand inside" (i.e. clockwise). This meant the distance in the stadium was shortened to 385 yards, and the total distance became 26 miles 385 yards (42.195&nbsp;km).<ref name='ISOH'/>
 
यही मनमानी सी लगती दूरी [[लंदन]] के [[1908 ग्रीष्म ओलंपिक]] के मैराथन के लिए लागू हुई। [[हेग]] में [[अंतर्राष्ट्रीय ओलंपिक समिति]] की मई 1907 की बैठक में [[बर्तानी ओलंपिक संघ]] के साथ यह सहमति हुई कि 1908 के ओलंपिक में कुछ 25 मील या 40 किलोमीटर की मैराथन दौड़ भी शामिल होगी।<ref name='BOC'>British Olympic Council Minutes</ref> नवंबर 1907 में इसी लंबाई के एक रास्ते का नक्शा अखबारों में छपा, जो कि [[विंडसर किला]] से शुरू हो के लंदन के [[शेपर्ड्स बुश]] में [[व्हाइट सिटी स्टेडियम]] में खत्म होती थी।<ref name='ISOH'>. Bob Wilcock, The 1908 Olympic Marathon, Journal of Olympic History, Volume 16 Issue 1, March 2008</ref> There were protests about the final few miles because of tram-lines and cobbles, so the route was revised to cross the rough ground of [[Wormwood Scrubs]]. This lengthened the route, as did plans to make the start {{convert|700|yd|m}} from [[Queen Victoria]]'s statue by [[Windsor Castle]], and it was decided to fix the distance at {{convert|26|mi}} to the stadium, plus a lap of the track (586 yards, 2 feet),<ref name='ISOH'/> using the Royal Entrance as the marathon tunnel, and finishing in front of the Royal Box. For the official Trial Marathon on 25 April 1908, organized by the Polytechnic Harriers, the start was on ‘The Long Walk’&nbsp;– a magnificent avenue leading up to [[Windsor Castle]] in the grounds of [[Windsor Great Park]]. For the Olympic Marathon itself the start was on the private East Terrace of [[Windsor Castle]], with the permission of [[King Edward VII]], so that the public would not interfere with the start.<ref name='ISOH'/> The [[Mary of Teck|Princess of Wales]] and her children drove from their home at [[Frogmore]] on the far side of [[Windsor Great Park]] to watch the start of the race.<ref name='ISOH'/><ref name='diary'>The Princess of Wales' private diary and press reports</ref> Shortly before the Games opened it was realized that the Royal Entrance could not be used as the marathon entrance—it was raised to permit easy descent by the royal party from their carriages, and did not open onto the track—so an alternative entrance was chosen, diagonally opposite the Royal Box. A special path was made just outside the [[Franco British Exhibition]] ground so that the distance to the stadium remained 26 miles. The finishing line was left unchanged, but in order that the spectators, including [[Alexandra of Denmark|Queen Alexandra]], could have the best view of the final yards, the direction of running was changed to "right-hand inside" (i.e. clockwise). इसका मतलब यह हुआ कि स्टेडिय में अंदर की दूरी 385 ही रह गई और कुल दूरी 26 मील 385 गज़ (42.195 किमी) हुई।<ref name='ISOH'/>
 
1912 के अगले ओलंपिक में यह लंबाई बदल के 40.2 किमी (24.98 मील) कर दी गई और फिर 1920 के ओलंपिक में 72.75 मील (26.56 किमी)। अंततः 1924 के ओलंपिक में 1908 वाली दूरी नियत हुई। पहले सात [[ओलंपिक खेल]]ों में 40 से 42.75 किलोमीटर (या 24.85 और 26.56 मील) के बीच की छः अलग अलग लंबाइयाँ रहीं (40 किमी का दो बार इस्तेमाल हुआ)।
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