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बदलाव

छो
बॉट: वर्तनी एकरूपता।
 
{|border="2" class="wikitable"
! || ओष्ठ्य <br />(Bilabial) || दन्त्यौष्ठ्य <br />(Labio-dental) || दन्त्य <br />(Dental) || वर्त्स्य <br />(Alveolar) || पश्वर्त्स्य <br />(Post-alveolar) || [[मूर्धन्य व्यंजन|मूर्धन्य]] <br />(Retroflex) || तालव्य <br />(Palatal) || कण्ठ्य <br />(Velar) || अलिजिह्वीय <br />(Uvular) || उपालिजिह्वीय <br />(Pharyngeal) || कण्ठच्छदीय <br />(Epiglottal) || काकलीय <br />(Glottal)
|-align="center"
|'''स्पर्श <br />(Plosive)''' || p&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;b || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; || colspan="3"|t&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;d || {{IPA|ʈ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɖ}} || c&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɟ}} || k&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;g || q&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;G || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; || {{IPA|ʡ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; || {{IPA|ʔ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
|-align="center"
|'''नासिक्य <br />(Nasal)''' || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;m || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɱ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;n || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɳ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɲ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ŋ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɴ}} || || ||
|-align="center"
|'''[[लुण्ठित व्यंजन|लुण्ठित]] <br />(Trill)''' || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;B || || colspan="3"|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;r || || || || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʀ}} || || ||
|-align="center"
|'''उत्क्षिप्त <br />(Tap/Flap)''' || || || colspan="3"|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɾ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɽ}} || || || || || ||
|-align="center"
|'''[[संघर्षी व्यंजन|संघर्षी]] <br />(Fricative)''' || {{IPA|ɸ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|β}} || {{IPA|f}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|v}} || {{IPA|θ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ð}} || s&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;z || {{IPA|ʃ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʒ}} || {{IPA|ʂ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʐ}} || {{IPA|ç}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʝ}} || {{IPA|x}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɣ}} || {{IPA|χ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʁ}} || {{IPA|ħ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʕ}} || {{IPA|ʜ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʢ}} || h&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɦ}}
|-align="center"
|'''पार्श्विक संघर्षी <br />(Lateral fricative)''' || || || colspan="3"|{{IPA|ɬ}}&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɮ}} || || || || || || ||
|-align="center"
|'''अन्तस्थ <br />(Approximant)''' || || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʋ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɹ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɻ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;j || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɰ}} || || || ||
|-align="center"
|'''पार्श्विक अन्तस्थ <br />(Lateral approximant)''' || || || colspan="3"|&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;l || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ɭ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʎ}} || &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;{{IPA|ʟ}} || || || ||
|}
 
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|b}}</big>
| ब || ب || align="left"| a'''b'''ash
|-
|<big> b{{IPAlink|ʱ}}</big>
| भ || بھ || align="left"| a'''bh'''or
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|d̪}}</big><ref name=coronal>To an English ear, {{IPA|[t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ]}} all sound like {{IPA|/t/}}, and {{IPA|[d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ]}} all sound like {{IPA|/d/}}. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. {{IPA|[t̪ d̪]}} are like Spanish or French {{IPA|[t d]}}, with the tongue touching the teeth, and {{IPA|[t̪ʰ d̪]}} are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English {{IPA|/θ ð/}} (the ''th'' sounds). Hindi-Urdu {{IPA|[ʈ ɖ]}} are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and {{IPA|[ʈʰ ɖ]}} are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English ''t d''; {{IPA|[ʈ]}} is how they hear English ''t'' after ''s''.</ref>
| द || د || align="left"| a'''d'''o
|-
|<big> d̪{{IPAlink|ʱ}}</big><ref name=coronal/>
| ध || دھ || align="left"| a'''dh'''ere
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|ɖ}}</big><ref name=coronal/>
| ड || ڈ || align="left"| gua'''rd'''
|-
|<big> ɖ{{IPAlink|ʱ}}</big><ref name=coronal/>
| ढ || ڈھ || align="left"| gua'''rdh'''ouse
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|dʒ}}</big>
| ज || ج || align="left"| he'''dg'''e
|-
|<big> dʒ{{IPAlink|ʱ}}</big>
| झ || جھ || align="left"| he'''dgeh'''og
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|f}}</big>
| फ़ || ف || align="left"| '''f'''ood
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|ɡ}}</big>
| ग || گ || align="left"| a'''g'''ate
|-
|<big> ɡ{{IPAlink|ʱ}}</big>
| घ || گھ || align="left"| pi'''gh'''eaded
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|h}}</big>
| ः || rowspan=2| ح || align="left"| '''h'''ead
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|ɦ}}</big>
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|j}}</big>
| य || ي || align="left"| '''y'''ak
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|k}}</big>
| क || ک || align="left"| s'''c'''an
|-
|<big> k{{IPAlink|ʰ}}</big>
| ख || کھ || align="left"| '''c'''an
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|l}}</big>
| ल || ل || align="left"| '''l'''eaf
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|m}}</big>
| म || م || align="left"| '''m'''uch
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|n}}</big>
| न || ن || align="left"| '''n'''ot
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|ɳ}}</big>
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|aː}}</big>
| आ, पा || آ, ـا || align="left"| ''br'''a'''''
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|eː}}</big>
| ए, पे || rowspan=2| ے || align="left"| between ''y'''e'''ll'' and ''Y'''a'''le''
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|ɛː}}</big>
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|ə}}</big>
| अ, प || ـَ || align="left"| ''n'''u'''t''
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|iː}}</big><ref name=V>{{IPA|/iː, ɪ/}} and {{IPA|/uː, ʊ/}} are neutralized to {{IPA|[i, u]}} at the end of a word.</ref>
| ई, पी || ی || align="left"| ''f'''ee'''t''
|-
|<big>{{IPAlink|ɪ}}</big><ref name=V/>
| इ, पि || ـِ || align="left"| ''d'''i'''ll''
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|oː}}</big>
| ओ, पो || rowspan=3| و || align="left"| '''''o'''ld''
|-
|<big> {{IPAlink|ɔː}}</big>
* [http://dictionary.sensagent.com/Devanagari%20transliteration/en-en/ देवनागरी एवं आइपीए का परस्पर मानचित्रण (मैपिंग)]
* [http://smc.org.in/silpa/Transliterate भारतीय लिपियों को आईपीए में बदलने का आनलाइन प्रोग्राम] - इस प्रोग्राम में भारतीय लिपियों को आपस में बदलने की सुविधा भी है।
* [http://easypronunciation.com/en/#index_phonetic_converters Phonetic Transcription Converters] (The phonetic converters are available for : Chinese, English, French, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Russian (stress marks), Spanish)
* [http://familientagebuch.de/rainer/2007/38.html#4 आनलाइन जर्मन ==> आईपीए परिवर्तक]