"विंटर वार" के अवतरणों में अंतर

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{{Infobox military conflict
फ़िनलैंड व रूस के मध्य 1939 से 1940 के मध्य हुआ साढ़े तीन महीनें का युद्ध
| conflict = Winter War
| partof = [[World War II]]
| image = Winter war.jpg
| image_size = 300px
| alt = A group of Finnish soldiers in snowsuits manning a heavy machine gun in a foxhole.
| caption = A Finnish machine gun crew during the Winter War
| date = 30 November 1939 – 13 March 1940<br/>({{Age in years, months, weeks and days|month1=11|day1=30|year1=1939|month2=03|day2=13|year2=1940}})
| place = Eastern [[Finland]]
| territory = Cession of the [[Gulf of Finland]] islands, [[Karelian Isthmus]], Ladoga [[Karelia]], [[Salla]], and [[Rybachy Peninsula]], and lease of [[Hanko]] to the Soviet Union
| result = <!-- See talk page; wait for consensus before changing. -->[[Moscow Peace Treaty]]<br>(See [[Winter War#Aftermath and casualties|Aftermath]])
| combatant2 = '''{{flag|Soviet Union|1923}}'''
| combatant1 = '''{{flag|Finland}}'''
* [[Foreign support of Finland in the Winter War|<small>Foreign volunteers</small>]]
| commander2 = {{flagicon|Soviet Union}} '''[[Joseph Stalin]]'''<br/>{{flagicon|Soviet Union}} [[Kirill Meretskov]]<br/>{{flagicon|Soviet Union}} [[Kliment Voroshilov]]<br/>{{flagicon|Soviet Union}} [[Semyon Timoshenko]]{{refn|Commander of the [[Leningrad Military District]] Kiril Meretskov initially ran the overall operation against the Finns.<ref name="Edwards_93">[[#Edwards2006|Edwards (2006)]], p. 93</ref> The command was passed on 9 December 1939 to the General Staff Supreme Command (later known as [[Stavka]]), directly under Kliment Voroshilov (chairman), [[Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov|Nikolai Kuznetsov]], [[Joseph Stalin]] and [[Boris Shaposhnikov]].<ref name="Edwards_125">[[#Edwards2006|Edwards (2006)]], p. 125</ref><ref>[[#Manninen2008|Manninen (2008)]], p. 14</ref> In January 1940, the Leningrad Military District was reformed and renamed "North-Western Front." Semyon Timoshenko was chosen Army Commander to break the Mannerheim Line.<ref name="Trotter_204">[[#Trotter2002|Trotter (2002)]], p. 204</ref>|group="F"}}
| commander1 = {{flagicon|Finland}} '''[[Kyösti Kallio]]'''<br/> {{flagicon|Finland}} [[Risto Ryti]]<br/> {{flagicon|Finland}} '''[[Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim]]'''
| strength2 = 425,000–760,000 soldiers{{refn|<ref name="Meltiukhov2000">[[#Meltiukhov2000|Meltiukhov (2000)]]: ch. 4, Table 10</ref> 550,757 soldiers on 1 January 1940 and 760,578 soldiers by the beginning of March.<ref name="Krivo1997_63">[[#Krivo1997|Krivosheyev (1997)]], p. 63</ref> In the Leningrad Military District, 1,000,000 soldiers<ref name="Kilin1999_383">[[#Kilin1999|Kilin (1999)]], p. 383</ref> and 20 divisions one month before the war and 58 divisions two weeks before its end.<ref>[[#Manninen1994|Manninen (1994)]], p. 43</ref> |group="F"}}<br/> 2,514–6,541 tanks{{refn|At the beginning of the war the Soviets had 2,514 tanks and 718 armoured cars. The main battlefield was the Karelian Isthmus where the Soviets deployed 1,450 tanks. At the end of the war the Soviets had 6,541 tanks and 1,691 armoured cars. The most common tank type was [[T-26]], but also [[BT tank|BT]] type was very common.<ref name="Kanta1998_260">[[#Kanta1998|Kantakoski (1998)]], p. 260</ref>|group="F"}}<br />3,880 aircraft<ref>[[#Trotter2002|Trotter (2002)]], p. 187</ref>
| strength1 = 300,000–340,000 soldiers{{refn|At the beginning of the war, the Finns had 300,000 soldiers. The Finnish army had only 250,028 rifles (total 281,594 firearms), but [[White Guard (Finland)|White Guards]] brought their own rifles (over 114,000 rifles, total 116,800 firearms) to the war. The Finnish Army reached its maximum strength at the beginning of March 1940 with 346,000 soldiers in uniform.<ref name="Palo1999_299-300">[[#Palo1999|Palokangas (1999)]], pp. 299–300</ref><ref name="JK2005_83">[[#Juuti&Koski2005|Juutilainen & Koskimaa (2005)]], p. 83</ref>|group="F"}}<br/>32 tanks{{refn|From 1919 onwards, the Finns possessed 32 French [[Renault FT]] tanks and few lighter tanks. These were unsuitable for the war and they were subsequently used as fixed [[Bunker#Pillbox|pillboxes]]. The Finns bought 32 British [[Vickers 6-Ton]] tanks during 1936–39, but without weapons. Weapons were intended to be manufactured and installed in Finland. Only 10 tanks were fit for combat at the beginning of the conflict.<ref name="Palo1999_318">[[#Palo1999|Palokangas (1999)]], p. 318</ref>|group="F"}}<br/>114 aircraft{{refn|On 1 December 1939 the Finns had 114 combat aeroplanes fit for duty and seven aeroplanes for communication and observation purposes. Almost 100 aeroplanes were used for flight training purposes, not suitable for combat, or under repair. In total, the Finns had 173 aircraft and 43 reserve aircraft.<ref name="Peltonen">[[#Peltonen|Peltonen (1999)]]</ref>|group="F"}}
| casualties2 = 126,875–167,976 dead or missing<ref name="Krivo1997_77-78">[[#Krivo1997|Krivosheyev (1997)]], pp. 77–78</ref><ref name="Kilin2007b_91">[[#Kilin2007b|Kilin (2007b)]], p. 91</ref><ref name=autogenerated3>[[#Petrov2013|Petrov (2013)]]</ref><br />188,671–207,538 wounded<ref name="Krivo1997_77-78"/><ref name="Kilin2007b_91" /><br />5,572 [[Soviet prisoners of war in Finland|captured]]<ref name="Manninen1999b_815">[[#Manninen1999b|Manninen (1999b)]], p. 815</ref><br />1,200–3,543 tanks<ref name="Kilin1999">[[#Kilin1999|Kilin (1999)]] p. 381</ref><ref name="Kanta1998_286">[[#Kanta1998|Kantakoski (1998)]], p. 286</ref><ref name="Manninen1999b_810-811">[[#Manninen1999b|Manninen (1999b)]], pp. 810–811</ref><br />261–515 aircraft<ref name="Manninen1999b_810-811"/><ref name="Kilin1999_381">[[#Kilin1999|Kilin (1999)]], p. 381</ref><br/>'''321,000–381,000 total casualties'''
| casualties1 = 25,904 dead or missing<ref name="Kur&Lent2005">[[#Kur&Lent2005|Kurenmaa and Lentilä (2005)]], p. 1152</ref><br />43,557 wounded<ref name=autogenerated2>[[#Lent&Juuti1999|Lentilä and Juutilainen (1999)]], p. 821</ref><br />800–1,100 [[Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union|captured]]<ref name="Malmi1999_792">[[#Malmi1999|Malmi (1999)]], p. 792</ref><br/>20–30 tanks <br/>62 aircraft<ref name="Tillo1993_160"/><br/>'''70,000 total casualties'''
| campaignbox = {{WWIITheatre}} {{Campaignbox Scandinavia in World War II}} {{Campaignbox Finland 1939-1945}} {{Campaignbox Winter War}}
}}
 
'''विंटर वॉर'''{{refn|{{lang-fi|talvisota}}, {{lang-sv|vinterkriget}}, {{lang-rus|Зи́мняя война́|r=Zimnyaya voyna}}. '''सोवियत - फीनिश युद्ध 1939–1940''' ({{lang-ru|link=no|Сове́тско-финская война́ 1939–1940}}) एवं '''सोवियत - फ़िनलैण्ड युद्ध 1939–1940''' ({{lang-ru|link=no|Сове́тско-финляндская война́ 1939–1940}}) प्रायः रूसी इतिहास;<ref>[[#Baryshnikov2005|Baryshnikov (2005)]]</ref><ref>[[#Kovalyov2006|Kovalyov (2006)]]</ref><ref>[[#Shirokorad2001|Shirokorad (2001)]]</ref> '''रूसो-फीनिश युद्ध 1939–1940''' या '''फीनो-रूसी युद्ध 1939–1940''' तत्कालीन [[सोवियत संघ]] एवं [[फिनलैण्ड]] के बीच चला १९३९ से १९४० तक का साढ़े तीन माह लम्बा युद्ध था। The war began with the Soviet invasion of Finland on 30 November 1939, which was three months after the outbreak of [[World War II]], and ended with the [[Moscow Peace Treaty]] on 13 March 1940. The [[League of Nations]] deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union from the League.
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