"अमेरिकी गृहयुद्ध" के अवतरणों में अंतर

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{{Infobox military conflict
[[चित्र:Battle of Gettysburg, by Currier and Ives.png|thumb|230px|गॅटीस्बर्ग की लड़ाई]]
| conflict = अमेरिकी गृहयुद्ध
| partof =
| image = [[चित्र:Battle of Gettysburg, by Currier and Ives.png|thumb|230px|गॅटीस्बर्ग की लड़ाई300px]]
| image_size = 300px
| caption = गॅटीस्बर्ग की लड़ाई]
| date = [[Battle of Fort Sumter|April 12, 1861]] – [[Conclusion of the American Civil War#Andrew Johnson's May 9 Declaration (May 9)|May 9, 1865]]{{Efn|[[CSS Shenandoah|Last shot fired]] June 22, 1865.}}<ref name="NYT JD Cap">{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1865/05/10/archives/important-proclamations-the-belligerent-rights-of-the-rebels-at-an.html|title=The Belligerent Rights of the Rebels at an End. All Nations Warned Against Harboring Their Privateers. If They Do Their Ships Will be Excluded from Our Ports. Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. The Machinery of Government to be Put in Motion There |website=The New York Times|agency=[[Associated Press]]|date=May 10, 1865|accessdate=December 23, 2013}}</ref><br>(4 years, 3 weeks and 6 days)
| place = [[Southern United States]], [[Northeastern United States]], [[Western United States]], [[Atlantic Ocean]]
| result = '''[[Union (American Civil War)|Union]] victory:'''
* Dissolution of the [[Confederate States of America|Confederate States]]
* U.S. [[territorial integrity]] preserved
* [[Slavery in the United States|Slavery]] [[Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution|abolished]]
* Beginning of the [[Reconstruction Era]]
* Passage and ratification of the [[Reconstruction Amendments|13th, 14th, and 15th amendments]] to the [[United States Constitution]]
| combatant1 = '''{{Flagcountry|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}}'''
| combatant2 = '''{{Flagcountry|Confederate States of America|1861|size=23px}}'''<!--Flag used for most of the Confederacy's existence-->
| commander1 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[अब्राहम लिंकन]]
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[युलीसेस सिंपसन ग्रांट]]
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[William T. Sherman]]
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[David Farragut]]
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[George B. McClellan]]
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[Henry Halleck]]
*{{flagicon|Union (American Civil War)|size=23px}} [[George Meade]]}}
''[[Military leadership in the American Civil War#The Union|and others...]]''
| commander2 = {{plainlist|
*{{flagicon|Confederate States of America|name=Confederate States|variant=1861|size=23px}} [[Jefferson Davis]]
*{{flagicon|Confederate States of America|1861|size=23px}} [[Robert E. Lee]]{{surrendered}}
*{{flagicon|Confederate States of America|1861|size=23px}} [[Joseph E. Johnston|J. E. Johnston]]{{surrendered}}
*{{flagicon|Confederate States of America|1861|size=23px}} [[P. G. T. Beauregard|G. T. Beauregard]]{{surrendered}}
*{{flagicon|Confederate States of America|1861|size=23px}} [[A. S. Johnston]]{{KIA}}
*{{flagicon|Confederate States of America|1861|size=23px}} [[Braxton Bragg]]{{surrendered}}}}
''[[Military leadership in the American Civil War#The Confederacy|and others...]]''
| strength1 = '''2,200,000:'''<ref name="strength" group=lower-alpha>Total number that served</ref>
* {{flagicon image|Flag of the United States of America (1863-1865).svg}} [[Union Army|U.S. Army]]
* {{flagicon image|Flag of the United States Marine Corps (1914–1939).png}} [[United States Marine Corps|U.S. Marines]]
* {{flagicon|United States Navy|1864}} [[Union Navy|U.S. Navy]]
* {{flagicon image|Ensign of the United States Revenue-Marine (1841).png}} [[United States Revenue Cutter Service|Revenue Service]]
'''698,000 {{small|(peak)}}'''<ref name="nps.gov">{{cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/civilwar/facts.htm|title=Facts|publisher=National Park Service}}</ref>{{Better source|date=October 2016}}<ref>[http://www.oocities.org/littlegreenmen.geo/UASize.htm "Size of the Union Army in the American Civil War"]: Of which 131,000 were in the Navy and Marines, 140,000 were garrison troops and home defense militia, and 427,000 were in the field army.</ref>
| strength2 = '''750,000–1,000,000:'''<ref name="strength" group=lower-alpha /><ref>Long, E. B. ''The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865.'' Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971. {{OCLC|68283123}}. p. 705.</ref>
* {{flagicon image|Battle flag of the Confederate States of America.svg}} [[Confederate States Army|C.S. Army]]
* {{flagicon image|Flag of the Confederate States Marine Corps.svg}} [[Confederate States Marines|C.S. Marines]]
* {{flagicon image|Naval ensign of the Confederate States of America (1863–1865).svg}} [[Confederate States Navy|C.S. Navy]]
'''360,000 {{small|(peak)}}'''<ref name="nps.gov"/><ref>[http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;q1=abstract;rgn=full%20text;idno=waro0128;didno=waro0128;view=image;seq=0542 "The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies; Series 4 – Volume 2"], United States. War Dept 1900.</ref>
| casualties1 = {{plainlist|
*110,000+ killed in action/died of wounds
*230,000+ accident/disease deaths<ref name="civilwarhome.com">Fox, William F. [http://www.civilwarhome.com/foxspref.html Regimental losses in the American Civil War] (1889)</ref><ref name="Official DOD data">[https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_principal_wars.xhtml Official DOD data] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140228202255/https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_principal_wars.xhtml |date=February 28, 2014 }}</ref>
*25,000–30,000 died in Confederate prisons<ref name="nps.gov"/><ref name="civilwarhome.com" />
*365,000+ total dead{{sfn|Chambers|Anderson|1999|p=849}}
*282,000+ wounded<ref name="Official DOD data" />
*181,193 captured<ref name="nps.gov"/>{{Better source|date=October 2016}}<ref>211,411 Union soldiers were captured, and 30,218 died in prison. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties.</ref>}}
'''Total: 828,000+ casualties'''
| casualties2 = {{plainlist|
*94,000+ killed in action/died of wounds<ref name="civilwarhome.com" />
*26,000–31,000 died in Union prisons<ref name="Official DOD data" />
*290,000+ total dead
*137,000+ wounded
*436,658 captured<ref name="nps.gov"/>{{Better source|date=October 2016}}<ref>462,634 Confederate soldiers were captured and 25,976 died in prison. The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties.</ref>}}
'''Total: 864,000+ casualties'''
| casualties3 = {{plainlist|
*50,000 free civilians dead<ref name="StatsWarCost" />
*80,000+ slaves dead (disease)<ref>Professor James Downs. [https://blog.oup.com/2012/04/black-white-demographic-death-toll-civil-war/ "Color blindness in the demographic death toll of the Civil War"]. University of Connecticut, April 13, 2012. "The rough 19th century estimate was that 60,000 former slaves died from the epidemic, but doctors treating black patients often claimed that they were unable to keep accurate records due to demands on their time and the lack of manpower and resources. The surviving records only include the number of black patients whom doctors encountered; tens of thousands of other slaves who died had no contact with army doctors, leaving no records of their deaths." 60,000 documented plus 'tens of thousands' undocumented gives a minimum of 80,000 slave deaths.</ref>
*'''Total: 616,222<ref>Toward a Social History of the American Civil War Exploratory Essays, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 4.</ref>–1,000,000+ dead'''<ref>[http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/20/recounting-the-dead/ Recounting the dead], Associate Professor J. David Hacker, "estimates, based on Census data, indicate that the [military] death toll was approximately 750,000, and may have been as high as 850,000"</ref><ref>Professor James Downs. "Color blindness in the demographic death toll of the Civil War". Oxford University Press, April 13, 2012. "An 2 April 2012 New York Times article, 'New Estimate Raises Civil War Death Toll', reports that a new study ratchets up the death toll from an estimated 650,000 to a staggering 850,000 people. As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. If former slaves were included in this figure, the Civil War death toll would likely be over a million casualties&nbsp;..."</ref>}}}}
[[चित्र:US Secession map 1863 (BlankMap derived).png|thumb|230px|[[संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका|अमेरिका]] के संघीय राज्य (यूनियन, नीले रंग में) और अलगाववादी परिसंघीय राज्य (कन्फ़ेडरेसी, ख़ाक़ी रंग में)]]
[[चित्र:Union soldiers entrenched along the west bank of the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg, Virginia (111-B-157).jpg|thumb|230px|उत्तरी सैनिक खाइयों में [[वर्जिनिया]] में दक्षिणी शहर फ़्रेड्रिक्सबर्ग पर हमला करने से पहले]]