"कॉलीवुड" के अवतरणों में अंतर

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{{अनुवाद}}
{{भारतीय फिल्म सूची}}
तमिल फिल्म उद्योग तमिल घर भाषा भारत में सिनेमा आधारित है और कभी कभी (तमिल: கோலிவுட் kōlivūṭ) केरल फिल्म उद्योग के रूप में निर्दिष्ट है. नाम, केरल फिल्म उद्योग, Kodambakkam से ली गई है, चेन्नई में क्षेत्र (पूर्व मद्रास), जहां केरल फिल्म उद्योग मुख्यतः फिल्मों का निर्माण कर रहे हैं. तमिल भाषा फिल्में भी श्रीलंका में फिल्माया है.
The '''Tamil Film Industry''' is home to [[Tamil language|Tamil-language]] cinema based in [[Cinema_of_India|India]] and is sometimes referred to as ''Kollywood'' ([[Tamil language|Tamil]] : கோலிவுட் ''{{unicode|kōlivūṭ}}''). The name, Kollywood, has derived from Kodambakkam, the area in [[Chennai]] (formerly Madras), where Kollywood films are largely produced. [[Tamil language]] movies are also filmed in Sri Lanka.
 
मूक फिल्मों केरल फिल्म उद्योग में 1916 के बाद से उत्पादन किया और 1931 में dawned टाकीज के युग थे. 1930 के दशक के अंत तक, उद्योग हद तक बढ़ती थी कि मद्रास विधानमंडल के राज्य थोड़ा विपक्ष के साथ अग्रणी मनोरंजन कर अधिनियम 1939 पारित किया.
Silent movies were produced in Kollywood since 1916 and the era of talkies dawned in 1931. By the end of the 1930s, the industry was booming to the extent that the State of Madras legislature passed the pioneering ''Entertainment Tax Act 1939'' with little opposition.
 
==Distribution==
 
Tamil films have one of the widest overseas distribution along with Telugu and Hindi films. They have enjoyed consistent popularity among Tamil speakers in [[India]], [[Sri Lanka]], [[Singapore]] and [[Malaysia]]. Tamil films have recently become popular in [[Japan]] (Rajinikanth's ''Muthu'', for example, screened for a record period), [[South Africa]], [[Canada]], and the [[UK]]. Many movies such as ''[[Chandramukhi]]'' and ''[[Anniyan]]'' were also simultaneously released in the [[USA]]. ''[[Sivaji: The Boss]]'', which had released recently has also been touted as a record-breaking film for its high-budget, large opening, and reception worldwide. It also cracked into the [[UK]]'s Top 10 weekend box opening movies becoming the first ever Indian movie to do so. It is also the most expensive Indian movie produced so far, largely due to the 20 Crore salary paid to Rajnikanth.
 
Tamil films enjoy significant patronage in the neighbouring southern States like Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh too. In Kerala and Karnataka the films are directly released in Tamil but in Andhra Pradesh they are generally dubbed into Telugu.
There is a fair amount of dispersion amongst the Indian film industries. Many successful Tamil films have been remade by the Hindi and Telugu film industries. Kollywood has also remade a fair number of Hindi-, Telugu-, Malayalam-, and other-language films.
It is estimated by the ''Manorama Yearbook 2000'' (a popular almanac) that over 5,000 Tamil films were produced in the 20th century. For a complete list of Tamil films, see the [[List of Tamil-Language Films]]. Tamil films have also been dubbed into other languages, thus reaching a much wider audience. Examples of those dubbed into Hindi include such hits as ''[[Minsaara Kanavu]]'', ''[[Roja]]'' and ''[[Bombay (film)|Bombay]]''. ''[[Anniyan]]'', a recent Tamil film became the first Indian film to be dubbed into [[French language|French]]. See [[popular Tamil films]].
 
There has been a growing presence of [[English language|English]] in dialogue and songs as well. It is not uncommon to see movies that feature dialogue studded with English words and phrases, or even whole sentences. Some movies are also simultaneously made in two or three languages (either using subtitles or several soundtracks). Quite often, Tamil movies feature [[Chennai Tamil]], a colloquial version of Tamil spoken in [[Madras]]' i.e '[[Chennai]]''.
 
==History==
 
A visiting [[Europe]]an [[exhibitor]] first [[screened]] (date unknown) a selection of silent short films at the [[Victoria Public Hall]] in [[Madras]]. The films all featured [[non-fiction]]al subjects; they were mostly photographed records of day-to-day events.
 
In [[Madras]] (now known as [[Chennai]]), the [[Electric Theatre]] was established for the screening of [[silent film]]s. It was a favourite haunt of the [[United Kingdom|British]] community in Madras. The theatre was shut down after a few years. This building is now part of the Post Office complex in [[Anna Salai]]. A Mr. [[Cohen (surname)|Cohen]] built [[Lyric Theatre]] in the [[Mount Road]] area (now Anna Salai).This venue boasted a variety of events, including [[plays]] in English, [[Western]] classical music concerts, and [[ballroom]] dances. Silent films were also screened as an additional attraction. [[Samikannu Vincent]], an employee of the [[South Indian Railways]] in [[Trichy]], purchased a [[film projector]] and silent films from the Frenchman [[Du Pont]] and set up a business as [[film exhibitor]]. He erected [[tent]]s for screening films. His [[tent cinema]] became popular and he travelled all over the [[state]] with his [[mobile unit]]. In later years, he produced [[talkies]] and also built a cinema in [[Coimbatore]].
 
To celebrate the event of [[George V of the United Kingdom|King George V]]'s visit in [[1909]], a grand [[exhibition]] was organised in [[Madras]]. Its major attraction was the screening of short films accompanied by sound. A British company imported a [[Crone]] [[megaphone]], made up of a film projector to which a [[gramophone]] with a disc containing prerecorded sound was linked, and both were run in unison, producing picture and sound simultaneously. However, there was no synched [[dialogue]]. [[Raghupathy Venkiah Naidu]], a successful [[photographer]], took over the equipment after the exhibition and set up a tent cinema near the [[Madras High Court]]. R. Venkiah, flush with funds, built in [[1912]] a permanent cinema in the Mount Road area named [[Gaiety]]. It was the first in Madras to screen films on a full-time basis. This theatre is still functioning, although under different ownership.
 
In tent cinemas, there were usually three [[class]]es of tickets: the floor, bench and, chair. The floor-ticket purchaser sat on sand to watch the movie, but he enjoyed certain advantages that other patrons did not. He could sit as he pleased, or he could turn over and take a short nap when the narrative was particularly dull and roll back again when the action was again to his liking—luxuries in which the upper class could never indulge.
 
==Early Movie Studios==
In early days during 20's, Tamil Movies (silent Movies)were shot at make shift location in and around Chennai,and for technical processing they were sent to Pune or Calcutta.Later some movies featuring [[MKT]] were shot at Pune and Calcutta.In 30's AVM setup their makeshift studio in the town of [[Karaikudi]], and in the same decade big full fledged Movie studio's were built in [[Salem]] ([[Modern Theatres]] Studio) and [[Coimbatore]] ([[Central Studios]],Neptune and Pakshiraja).By mid 40's Chennai became the hub of Studio activity with two more movie Studios built in Chennai,[[Vijaya Studios|Vijaya Vauhini Studios]] and Gemini Studios.Later AVM Studios shifted their opertation to Chennai.Thus the undivided Madras Presidency being the Capital to most of South India,Chennai became the center for Tamil and notable Telugu movies.Also most of the pre-independence era drama and stage actors joining movie industry from 40's Chennai became the hub for South Indian Lauguage Cinema.
 
==Superstar Club==
Initially, Kollywood was dominated by [[M.K. Thyagaraja Bagavadhar]] and [[P. U. Chinnappa]] in 30's and 40's, then by [[M. G. Ramachandran]] and [[Sivaji Ganesan]] from 50's till late 70'sand later dominated by [[Rajinikanth]] and [[Kamalhassan]].
 
These star have exclusive fanclubs that often resort to violent display of support. Distributors of films of the star are able to arrange financing of film-in-progress from banks and exhibitors without much difficulty.
 
This club is politically influential as they are able and willing to effect swings in votes in Assembly elections.
 
==Industrial trends==
{{Expand|date=August 2007}}
Average annual film output in Tamil film industry has risen steadily in the 20th century
*1930s—22.5 releases per year on averages
*1940s—22.1 releases per year on average
*1950s—32.6 releases per year on average
*1960s—43.0 releases per year on average
*1970s—62.5 releases per year on average
*1980s—104.6 releases per year on average
*1990s—101.2 releases per year on average
 
In the year 2007 a record breaking 150 movies were released as of December 31<small>st</small> 2007
 
For the purpose of entertainment taxes, returns have to be filed by the exhibitors weekly (usually each Tuesday). [http://www.tnsalestax.com/briefent.htm]
This is a chart of trend of box office collections of Kollywood with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.
{| class="wikitable"jhfjhfjh
|-
! Year || Tamil film Box Office (in crore Rupees)
|-
| 1980 || 80.8
|-
| 1985 || 156.4
|-The latest film release of film star Ajith is a film called Billa
It is running house full shows and is expected to recover the money in a short period
| 1990 || 313.3
|-
| 1995 || 782
|-
| 2000 || 1,411
|-
| 2005 || 2,320.5
|}
The Tamil film industry accounts for approx. 1% of the gross domestic product of the state of Tamil Nadu. Costs of production have grown exponentially from just under Rs.40 lakhs in 1980 to over Rs.11 crores by 2005 for a typical star-studded big-budget film. Similarly, costs of processing per print have risen from just under Rs.2,500 in 1980 to nearly Rs.70,000 by 2005.
 
Interestingly, The Tamil Nadu government has made provisions for an entertainment tax exemption for Tamil movies having pure Tamil word(s) in the title. This is in accordance with Government Order 72 passed on [[22 July]] [[2006]]. The first film to be released after the new Order was ''Unnakkum Ennakum''. The original title had been ''Something something Unakkum Ennakkum'', a half-English and a half-Tamil title.
 
==Exhibitors==
There are about 2,400 cinema halls in Tamilnadu, which is the main market for Tamil film industry. Of these around 125 are located in the Chennai district. Below is a list of the most prominent exhibitors in the box office.
* [[Sathyam Cinemas|Sathyam]] - 1,266 seats (Chennai )
* Albert - 1,225 seats (Chennai)
* Devi - 1,212 seats (Chennai)
* Melody - 998 seats (Chennai)
* Abirami - 927 seats (Chennai)
* Kasi - 917 seats (Chennai)
* Sangam - 877 seats (Chennai)
* Maharani - 733 seats (Chennai)
* Udhayam - 700 seats (Chennai)
* Santham - 567 seats (Chennai)
* Padmam - 540 seats (Chennai)
* Suriyan - 480 seats (Chennai)
* Devi Bala - 369 seats (Chennai)
* Subham - 306 seats (Chennai)
* Mayajaal - 178 seats (Chennai)
* [[Inox]] - 909 seats (Chennai)
 
Show rentals range from Rs.700 in C-centres to as much as Rs.7,000 in A-centres for an average 700-seat screen. Unlike Hollywood, superstardom is deeply ingrained into Kollywood economics, so distributors are prepared to not only finance the films of super stars with proven track records but are also, in turn, able to secure minimum guarantees for those films from exhibitors.
 
Rise of multiplexes in the late 1990s has stunted the growth of large screens.
 
== See also ==