"बर्ट्रैंड रसल" के अवतरणों में अंतर

254 बैट्स् जोड़े गए ,  1 वर्ष पहले
Bluelinking 2 books for verifiability.) #IABot (v2.1alpha3
(Bluelinking 2 books for verifiability.) #IABot (v2.1alpha3)
|influences = [[यूक्लिड]]{{·}}[[जॉन स्टूवर्ट मिल]]{{·}}[[Giuseppe Peano]]{{·}}[[George Boole]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Development of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy, Volume 11|year=2002|publisher=Psychology Press|isbn=9780415295451|pages=113–114|author=Ronald Jager}}</ref>{{·}}[[Augustus De Morgan]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Cambridge Companion to Bertrand Russell|year=2003|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521636346|page=85|editor=Nicholas Griffin}}</ref>{{·}}[[Gottlob Frege]]{{·}}[[Georg Cantor]]{{·}}[[George Santayana]]{{·}}[[Alexius Meinong]]{{·}}[[बारूथ स्पिनोज़ा]]{{·}}[[Ernst Mach]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Bertrand Russell Memorial Volume|year=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781317833024|author=Roberts, George W.}}</ref>{{·}}[[डेविड ह्यूम]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Historical Dictionary of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy|year=2009|publisher=Scarecrow Press|isbn=9780810862920|author=Rosalind Carey, John Ongley}}</ref>{{·}}[[गाटफ्रीड लैबनिट्ज़]]{{·}}[[लुडविग विट्गेंस्टाइन]]{{·}}[[अल्फ्रेड नार्थ ह्वाइटहेड]]{{·}}[[G. E. Moore]]{{·}}[[Percy Bysshe Shelley]]
 
|influenced = [[Ludwig Wittgenstein]]{{·}}[[A. J. Ayer]]{{·}}[[Rudolf Carnap]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Language, Truth and Knowledge: Contributions to the Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap|year=2003|publisher=स्प्रिंगर|isbn=9781402012068|page=[https://archive.org/details/languagetruthkno0000unse/page/2 2]|author=Ilkka Niiniluoto|editor=Thomas Bonk|url=https://archive.org/details/languagetruthkno0000unse/page/2}}</ref>{{·}}[[John von Neumann]]<ref>{{cite book|title=CONPAR 1986|year=1986|publisher=स्प्रिंगर|isbn=9783540168119|page=15|author=Wolfgang Händler, Dieter Haupt, Rolf Jelitsch, Wilfried Juling, Otto Lange}}</ref>{{·}}[[Kurt Gödel]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Reflections on Kurt Gödel|year=1990|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=9780262730877|page=305|author=Hao Wang}}</ref>{{·}}[[Karl Popper]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Karl Popper|year=2013|publisher=C. Black|isbn=9781623567330|author=Phil Parvin}}</ref>{{·}}[[W. V. Quine]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Cambridge Companion to Quine|year=2004|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521639491|page=2|editor=Roger F. Gibson}}</ref>{{·}}[[Noam Chomsky]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Noam Chomsky: A Life of Dissent|year=1998|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=9780262522557|page=32|author=Robert F. Barsky}}</ref>{{·}}[[Hilary Putnam]]<ref>{{cite book|title=French Theory: How Foucault, Derrida, Deleuze, & Co. Transformed the Intellectual Life of the United States|year=2008|publisher=U of Minnesota Press|isbn=9780816647323|page=97|author=François Cusset}}</ref>{{·}}[[Saul Kripke]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Saul Kripke|year=2011|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9781139500661|editor=Alan Berger}}</ref>{{·}}[[Moritz Schlick]]<ref>{{cite book|title=General Philosophy of Science: Focal Issues: Focal Issues|year=2007|publisher=Elsevier|isbn=9780080548548|page=432|author=Dov M. Gabbay, Paul Thagard, John Woods, Theo A.F. Kuipers|chapter=The Logical Approach of the Vienna Circle and their Followers from the 1920s to the 1950s}}</ref>{{·}}[[Vienna Circle]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Husserl's Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology: An Introduction|year=2012|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521895361|page=204|author=Dermot Moran}}</ref>{{·}}[[J. L. Austin]]{{·}}[[G. H. Hardy]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Russell and G.H. Hardy: A study of their Relationship|url=http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1352&context=russelljournal|publisher=McMaster University Library Press|accessdate=3 January 2014|author=Grattan-Guinness}}</ref>{{·}}[[Alfred Tarski]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Alfred Tarski: Philosophy of Language and Logic|year=2012|publisher=Palgrave Macmillan|isbn=9780230367227|author=Douglas Patterson}}</ref>{{·}}[[Norbert Wiener]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Historical Dictionary of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy|year=2009|publisher=Scarecrow Press|isbn=9780810862920|pages=15–16|author=Rosalind Carey, John Ongley}}</ref>{{·}}[[Robert Oppenheimer]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center|year=2013|publisher=Random House LLC|isbn=9780385504133|author=Ray Monk}}</ref>{{·}}[[Leon Chwistek]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Alfred Tarski: Life and Logic|year=2004|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=9780521802406|page=[https://archive.org/details/alfredtarskilife0000fefe/page/67 67]|author=Anita Burdman Feferman, Solomon Feferman|url=https://archive.org/details/alfredtarskilife0000fefe/page/67}}</ref>{{·}}[[Alan Turing]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Alan Turing: The Enigma|year=2012|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=9780691155647|page=81|author=Andrew Hodges}}</ref>{{·}}[[Jacob Bronowski]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Origins of Knowledge and Imagination|year=2008|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=9780300157185|author=Jacob Bronowski}}</ref>{{·}}[[Frank P. Ramsey]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Russell vs. Meinong: The Legacy of "On Denoting"|year=2008|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=9780203888025|page=4|editor=Nicholas Griffin, Dale Jacquette}}</ref>{{·}}[[Jawaharlal Nehru]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Jawaharlal Nehru, a Biography|year=1993|publisher=Allied Publishers|isbn=9788170233695|page=46|author=Sankar Ghose|chapter=V: Europe Revisited}}</ref>{{·}}[[Tariq Ali]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Street-Fighting Years: An Autobiography of the Sixties|url=http://tariqali.org/archives/250|publisher=Verso|page=2005}}</ref>{{·}}[[Michael Albert]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Remembering Tomorrow: From SDS to Life After Capitalism: A Memoir|year=2011|publisher=Seven Stories Press|isbn=9781609800017|author=Michael Albert}}</ref>{{·}}[[Che Guevara]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life|year=1997|publisher=Grove Press|isbn=9780802197252|page=38|author=Jon Lee Anderson}}</ref>{{·}}[[Bernard Williams]]{{·}}[[Donald Davidson (philosopher)|Donald Davidson]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Donald Davidson|year=2004|publisher=McGill-Queen's Press&nbsp;– MQUP|isbn=9780773527812|page=1|author=Marc Joseph|chapter=1: Introduction: Davidson's Philosophical Project}}</ref>{{·}}[[Thomas Kuhn]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Thomas Kuhn's Revolution: An Historical Philosophy of Science|year=2005|publisher=Continuum|isbn=9781847141941|page=5|author=James A. Marcum|chapter=1: Who is Thomas Kuhn?}}</ref>{{·}}[[Nathan Salmon]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Content, Cognition, and Communication : Philosophical Papers II: Philosophical Papers II|year=2007|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=9780191536106|page=xi|author=Nathan Salmon|chapter=Introduction to Volume II}}</ref>{{·}}[[Christopher Hitchens]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever|year=2007|publisher=Da Capo Press|isbn=9780306816086|editor=Christopher Hitchens}}</ref>{{·}}[[Richard Dawkins]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Russell|year=2010|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9780203846490|page=444|author=Gregory Landini}}</ref>{{·}}[[Carl Sagan]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Varieties of Scientific Experience: A Personal View of the Search for God|year=2006|publisher=Penguin|isbn=9781594201073|author=Carl Sagan|editor=Ann Druyan}}</ref>{{·}}[[Isaiah Berlin]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Isaiah Berlin: Liberty, Pluralism and Liberalism|year=2004|publisher=Polity|isbn=9780745624778|page=15|author=George Crowder}}</ref>{{·}}[[Albert Ellis]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: An Integrative Approach: An Integrative Approach|year=2011|publisher=SAGE|isbn=9781412910040|page=142|author=Elsie Jones-Smith}}</ref>{{·}}[[Martin Gardner]]<ref>{{cite web|title=Interview with Martin Gardner|url=http://www.ams.org/notices/200506/fea-gardner.pdf|publisher=American Mathematical Society|accessdate=5 January 2014|page=603|date=June–July 2005}}</ref>{{·}}[[Daniel Dennett]]<ref>{{cite book|title=S Lewis Vs The New Atheists|year=2013|publisher=Authentic Media Inc|isbn=9781780780931|author=Peter S Williams}}</ref>{{·}}[[Buckminster Fuller]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Becoming Bucky Fuller|year=2009|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=9780262123020|page=72|author=Loretta Lorance, Richard Buckminster Fuller}}</ref>{{·}}[[Pervez Hoodbhoy]]<ref>{{cite web|title=How Difficult it is to Help People Change their Thinking – Interview with Dr. Pervez Hoodbhoy|url=http://old.drsohail.com/Articals/Pervezhoodbhoy.htm|accessdate=31 December 2013|author=Dr. K. Sohail|date=February 2000}}</ref>{{·}}[[John Maynard Keynes]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Return to Keynes|year=2010|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=9780674053540|page=146|editor=Bradley W. Bateman, Toshiaki Hirai, Maria Cristina Marcuzzo}}</ref>{{·}}[[Isaac Asimov]]<ref>{{cite book|title=I.Asimov: A Memoir|year=2009|publisher=Random House LLC|isbn=9780307573537|author=Isaac Asimov}}</ref>{{·}}[[Paul Kurtz]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Toward a New Enlightenment: The Philosophy of Paul Kurtz|year=1994|publisher=Transaction Publishers|isbn=9781412840170|page=233|author=Paul Kurtz|editor=Vern L. Bullough, Tim Madigan}}</ref>{{·}}[[Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn]]{{·}}[[James Joyce]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Finding Joy in Joyce: A Readers Guide to Ulysses|year=2000|publisher=Universal-Publishers|isbn=9781581127621|page=580|author=John P. Anderson}}</ref>{{·}}[[Kurt Vonnegut]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Reading, Learning, Teaching Kurt Vonnegut|year=2006|publisher=Peter Lang|isbn=9780820463377|page=46|author=Paul Lee Thomas}}</ref>{{·}}[[Ray Kurzweil]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Electronic Monuments|year=2005|publisher=U of Minnesota Press|isbn=9780816645831|page=180|author=Gregory L. Ulmer}}</ref>{{·}}[[Marvin Minsky]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Number-Crunching: Taming Unruly Computational Problems from Mathematical Physics to Science Fiction|year=2011|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=9781400839582|page=332|author=Paul J. Nahin|chapter=9}}</ref>{{·}}[[Herbert A. Simon]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Models of a Man: Essays in Memory of Herbert A. Simon|year=2004|publisher=MIT Press|isbn=9780262012089|page=21|editor=Mie Augier, Herbert Alexander Simon, James G. March}}</ref>{{·}}[[B.F. Skinner]]<ref>{{cite book|title=The Psychology of B F Skinner|year=2001|publisher=SAGE|isbn=9780761917595|page=19|author=William O'Donohue, Kyle E. Ferguson}}</ref>{{·}}[[John Searle]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Conversations with John Searle|year=2001|publisher=LibrosEnRed.com|isbn=9789871022113|page=28|author=Gustavo Faigenbaum}}</ref>{{·}}[[Andrei Sakharov]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Without Force Or Lies: Voices from the Revolution of Central Europe in 1989–90|year=1990|publisher=Mercury House|isbn=9780916515928|page=37|editor=William M. Brinton, Alan Rinzler}}</ref>{{·}}[[Stephen Hawking]]<ref>{{cite book|title=God, Time and Stephen Hawking|year=2001|publisher=Kregel Publications|isbn=9780825460296|page=18|author=David Wilkinson}}</ref>{{·}}[[Joseph Rotblat]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace|year=2007|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=9783527611270|editor=Reiner Braun, Robert Hinde, David Krieger, Harold Kroto, Sally Milne}}</ref> {{·}}[[Edward Said]]<ref>{{cite book|title=Edward Said: The Legacy of a Public Intellectual|year=2007|publisher=Academic Monographs|isbn=9780522853575|page=27|editor=Ned Curthoys, Debjani Ganguly}}</ref>{{·}}[[Sidney Hook]]{{·}}[[A. C. Grayling]]{{·}}[[Colin McGinn]]{{·}}[[Txillardegi]]<ref>[[Joxe Azurmendi|Azurmendi, Joxe]] (1999): Txillardegiren saioa: hastapenen bila, ''[[Jakin (magazine)|Jakin]]'', 114: pp 17–45. ISSN 0211-495X</ref>
| notable_ideas = {{collapsible list|title={{nbsp}}|[[Analytic philosophy]]<br/>[[Automated reasoning]]<br/>[[Automated theorem proving]]<br/>[[Axiom of reducibility]]<br/>[[Barber paradox]]<br/>[[Berry paradox]]<br/>[[Chicken (game)|Chicken]]<br/>[[Connective (logic)|Connective]]<br/>[[Definite description]]<br/>[[Descriptivist theory of names]]<br/>[[Double negation]]<br/>[[Existential fallacy]]<br/>[[Failure of reference]]<br/>[[Knowledge by acquaintance]]<br/>[[Knowledge by description]]<br/>[[Logical atomism]]<br/>[[Logical form]]<br/>[[Mathematical beauty]]<br/>[[Mathematical logic]]<br/>[[Meaning (philosophy of language)|Meaning]]<br/>[[Metamathematics]]<br/>[[Philosophical logic]]<br/>[[Propositional calculus]]<br/>[[Naive set theory]]<br/>[[Neutral monism]]<br/>[[Paradoxes of set theory]]<br/>[[Peano-Russell notation]]<br/>[[Propositional formula]]<br/>[[Self-refuting idea]]<br/>[[Quantification (logic)|Quantification]]<br/>[[Round square copula]]<br/>[[Relation (logic)|Relation]]<br/>[[Russell conjugation]]<br/>[[Russell's paradox]]<br/>[[Russell's teapot]]<br/>[[Set-theoretic definition of natural numbers]]<br/>[[Singleton (mathematics)|Singleton]]<br/>[[Theory of descriptions]]<br/>[[Type theory]]<br/>[[Tensor product of graphs]]<br/>[[Unity of the proposition]]}}
| signature = Bertrand Russell signature.svg
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