"मराठा" के अवतरणों में अंतर

21 बैट्स् नीकाले गए ,  1 माह पहले
minor corrections.
(Added refs + one allied. Left out during translation from eng-wiki?)
टैग: मोबाइल संपादन मोबाइल वेब सम्पादन
(minor corrections.)
टैग: मोबाइल संपादन मोबाइल वेब सम्पादन
| caption = 19 वीं सदी के एक मराठा परिवार की समूह तस्वीर
'''मराठा''' एक [[मराठी]] कबीलेकबीला हैंहै जो मूल रूप से किसान , (कुनबी), [[देवगिरि के यादव|गवली]], चरवाहा ([[धनगर]]), लोहार ([[लोहार]]), सुतार ([[बढ़ई]]), [[भंडारी]], ठाकर तथा [[कोली | कोली ]] महराष्ट्र में जातियों के समामेलनसम्मेलन से पिछली शताब्दियों में बनी जातिमहाराष्ट्र हैकी जाति .है।<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Constable |first1=Philip |access-date=2020-11-28 |title=The Marginalization of a Dalit Martial Race in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Western India. |journal=The Journal of Asian Studies |volume=60 |issue=2 |pages= 439–478|year=2001|doi=10.2307/2659700|jstor=2659700 |pmid=18268829 |quote=While the bulk of Shivaji's men were naturally Marathas, they included not only the allied castes of Dhangars and Gowalas, shepherds and herdsmen, but many who had no claim to kinship. For example Shivaji's famous infantry was composed largely of Bhandaris and Kolis. The Ramoshis... who afterwards formed the infantry of Haidar and Tipu in Mysore, were relied an for the capture of the hill forts, while the outcaste Mahars and Mangs served in his artillery, and in the garrisons of these forts - Patrick Cadell|url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/2659700}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|first=Christophe |last=Jaffrelot|author-link1=Christophe Jaffrelot|title=India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qJZp5tDuY-gC|year=2003|publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Publishers| page=163| isbn=978-1-85065-670-8}}</ref> उनमें से कई लोगों ने 16 वीं शताब्दी में [[डेक्कन सल्तनत]] या [[मुगल]] के लिए सैन्य सेवा की। बाद में 17 वीं और 18 वीं शताब्दी में, उन्होंने [[मराठा साम्राज्य]], [[शिवाजी]], एक मराठा द्वारा स्थापित सेनाओं में कार्य किया। कई मराठाओं को ढक्कन, मुगल सल्तनत द्वारा [[जागीरदार]] उनकी सेवा के लिए प्रदान किया गया था।<ref name="Gordon1993">{{cite book|author=Stewart Gordon|title=The Marathas 1600-1818|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iHK-BhVXOU4C&pg=PA15|date=16 September 1993|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-26883-7|pages=15–|quote=Looking backward from ample material on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, we know that Maratha as a category of caste represents the amalgamation of families from several castes - Kunbi, Lohar, Sutar, Bhandari, Thakar, and even Dhangars (shepherds) – which existed in the seventeenth century and, indeed, exist as castes in Maharashtra today. What differentiated, for example, "Maratha" from "Kunbi"? It was precisely the martial tradition, of which they were proud, and the rights (watans and inams) they gained from military service. It was these rights which differentiated them from the ordinary cultivator, ironworkers and tailors, especially at the local level}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2000">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=04ellRQx4nMC&pg=PA435|year=2000|publisher=Penguin Books India|isbn=978-0-14-100143-2|pages=435|quote=The early history of the marathas is obscure, but they were predominantly of the sudra(peasant) class, though later, after they gained a political role in the Deccan, they claimed to be Kshatriyas(warriors) and dressed themselves up with pedigrees of appopriate grandeur, with the Bhosles specifically claiming descent from the Sidodia's of Mewar. The fact however is that the marathas were not even a distinct caste, but essentially a status group, made up of individual families from different Maharashtrian castes..}}</ref><ref>"The name of the ‘caste-cluster of agriculturalists-turned-warriors’ inhabiting the north-west Dakhan, Mahārās̲h̲tra ‘the great country’, a term which is extended to all Marāt́hī speakers": {{EI2|author=P. Hardy|title=Marāt́hās|volume=6}}</ref><ref name="Hansen2018">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Bf5ZDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA31|title=Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay|author=Thomas Blom Hansen|date=5 June 2018|publisher=Princeton University Press|isbn=978-0-691-18862-1|pages=31–|quote=Historically the term Maratha emerged in the seventeenth century from being an imprecise designation for speakers of Marathi to become a title of Martial honor and entitlements earned by Deccan peasants serving as cavalrymen in the armies of Muslim rulers and later in Shivaji's armies.}}</ref><ref name="Black2005">{{cite book|author=Jeremy Black|title=Why Wars Happen|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Ywx5Xr9QT4EC&pg=PT115|date=1 March 2005|publisher=Reaktion Books|isbn=978-1-86189-415-1|pages=115–|quote=In seventeenth and eighteenth century India, military service was the most viable form of entrepreneurship for the peasants, shepherds, ironworkers and others who coalesced into the Maratha caste}}</ref>
महाराष्ट्रीयन इतिहासकार सनथंकर और राजेंद्र जैसे विद्वान के अनुसार, "मराठा" एक "मध्यम-किसान" जाति हैं, जिन्होंने अन्य [[कुनबी]] किसान जाति के साथ मिलकर महाराष्ट्रीयन समाज का गठन किया। वोरा आगे कहते हैं कि मराठा जाति भारत की सबसे बड़ी जाति है और महाराष्ट्र में शक्ति संरचना पर हावी है, क्योंकि उनकी संख्यात्मक शक्ति, विशेष रूप से ग्रामीण समाज में।<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=07qGAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA161|title=Grass-Roots Democracy in India and China: The Right To Participate |editor=Manoranjan Mohanty |editor2=George Mathew |editor3=Richard Baum |editor4=Rong Ma|author=Rajendra Vora|publisher=Sage Publications|year=2007|quote=The Marathas, a middle-peasantry caste accounting for around 30 percent of the total population of the state, dominate the power structure in Maharashtra. In no other state of India we find a caste as large as the Marathas. In the past years, scholars have turned their attention to the rural society of Maharashtra in which they thought the roots of this domination lay.|isbn=9788132101130}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Sunthankar |first1=B. R. |title=Nineteenth Century History of Maharashtra: 1818-1857 |date=1988 |publisher=Shubhada-Saraswat Prakashan |isbn=978-81-85239-50-7 |page=122 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SoNuAAAAMAAJ&q=kunbi+peasant |access-date=16 January 2020 |language=en|quote=The peasant castes of Marathas and kunbis formed the bulk of the Maharashtrian society and, owing to their numerical strength, held a dominating position in the old village organisation.}}</ref>