"मिखाइल गोर्बाचेव": अवतरणों में अंतर

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[[चित्र:Gorbachev (cropped).png|right|thumb|300px| caption = मिखाइल गोर्बाचेव, अक्टूबर १९८६ में]]
{{Infobox officeholder
| name = मिखाइल गोर्बाचेव<br>Михаил Горбачёв
| image = Gorbachev (cropped).png
| caption = मिखाइल गोर्बाचेव, अक्टूबर १९८६ में
| office = [[सोवियत संघ के राष्ट्रपति]]
| term_start = 15 मार्च 1990
| term_end = 25 दिसम्बर 1991
| primeminister2 = {{plainlist|
* [[Nikolai Ryzhkov]]
* [[Valentin Pavlov]]
* [[Ivan Silayev]]}}
| vicepresident = [[Gennady Yanayev]]
| successor = ''Office abolished''
| office2 = [[General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|General Secretary]] of the<br>[[Communist Party of the Soviet Union]]{{Efn|On 14 March 1990, the provision on the CPSU monopoly on power was removed from Article 6 of the Constitution of the USSR. Thus, in the Soviet Union, a multi-party system was officially allowed and the CPSU ceased to be part of the state apparatus.|}}
| term_start2 = 11 March 1985
| term_end2 = 24 August 1991
| deputy2 = Vladimir Ivashko
| predecessor2 = [[Konstantin Chernenko]]
| successor2 = [[Vladimir Ivashko]] (acting)
| office3 = [[List of heads of state of the Soviet Union|Chairman]] of the [[Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union|Supreme<br>Soviet of the Soviet Union]]
| deputy3 = Anatoly Lukyanov
| term_start3 = 25 May 1989
| term_end3 = 15 March 1990
| predecessor3 = Himself as [[List of heads of state of the Soviet Union|Chairman]] of the [[Presidium of the Supreme Soviet|Presidium]] of the [[Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union|Supreme Soviet]]
| successor3 = [[Anatoly Lukyanov]]
| office4 = [[List of heads of state of the Soviet Union|Chairman]] of the [[Presidium of the Supreme Soviet|Presidium]] of the [[Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union]]
| term_start4 = 1 October 1988
| term_end4 = 25 May 1989
| predecessor4 = [[Andrei Gromyko]]
| successor4 = Himself as [[List of heads of state of the Soviet Union|Chairman]] of the [[Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union|Supreme Soviet]]{{Collapsed infobox section begin|Additional positions}}
| office5 = Co-Chairman of the [[Union of Social Democrats]]
| term_start5 = 11 March 2000{{efn|Himself as the Chairman of the United Social Democratic Party of Russia until 24 November 2001, and the Chairman of the [[Social Democratic Party of Russia]] until 20 October 2007}}
| term_end5 =
| predecessor5 = ''Office established''
| successor5 =
| office6 = [[Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union|Second Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union]]<br />[[de facto]]
| term_start6 = 9 February 1984
| term_end6 = 10 March 1985
| predecessor6 = [[Konstantin Chernenko]]
| successor6 = [[Yegor Ligachev]]
{{Collapsed infobox section end}}
| birthname = Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
| birth_date = {{Birth date and age|df=yes|1931|3|2}}
| birth_place = [[Privolnoye, Krasnogvardeysky District, Stavropol Krai|Privolnoye]], [[Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic|Russian SFSR]], [[Soviet Union]] (now Russia)
| death_date =
| death_place =
| nationality = {{plainlist|
* Soviet (1931–1991)
* Russian (since 1991)
}}
| party = [[Union of Social Democrats]] (2007–present)
| otherparty = {{plainlist|
* [[Communist Party of the Soviet Union]] (1952–1991)
* [[Independent politician|Independent]] (1991–2000)
* Russian United Social Democratic Party (2000–2001)
* [[Social Democratic Party of Russia]] (2001–2007)
}}
| spouse = {{marriage|[[Raisa Gorbacheva]]|1953|1999|reason={{abbr|d.|died}}}}
| children = Irina Mikhailovna Virganskaya
| alma_mater = [[Moscow State University]]
| awards = [[Nobel Peace Prize]]
| signature = Gorbachev Signature.svg
| website = {{url|gorby.ru/en|Official website}}
| module = <center>{{Listen|embed=yes|filename= Mihail Gorbachev voice.oga|title=<center>Mikhail Gorbachev's voice</center>|type=speech|description=<center>Recorded November 2012</center>}}</center>
 
'''मिखाइल गोर्बाचोफ''' (जन्म : २ मार्च १९३१) [[रूस|रूसी]] राजनेता हैं [[सोवियत संघ]] के अन्तिम [[सोवियत संघ के राष्ट्रपति|राष्ट्रपति]] थे। उनको शान्ति का [[नोबेल पुरस्कार|नोबल पुरस्कार]] मिला। वह [[पेरेस्त्राइका]] के लिए प्रसिद्ध है। उनका नाम रूसी इतिहास मे सुधारों के लिए प्रसिद्ध हैं।