वार्ता:मौर्य राजवंश

Latest comment: 2 माह पहले by 2405:201:6036:801D:6CF4:DB15:C323:42CD in topic Add some Greek historian references also

यह पृष्ठ मौर्य राजवंश लेख के सुधार पर चर्चा करने के लिए वार्ता पन्ना है। यदि आप अपने संदेश पर जल्दी सबका ध्यान चाहते हैं, तो यहाँ संदेश लिखने के बाद चौपाल पर भी सूचना छोड़ दें।

लेखन संबंधी नीतियाँ
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WikiProject iconयह लेख विकिपरियोजना इतिहास के कार्य-क्षेत्र के अंतर्गत आता है, जिसका उद्देश्य सहयोगात्मक प्रयास के साथ इतिहास से सम्बंधित लेखों की विकिपीडिया कवरेज में सुधार करना है। यदि आप भाग लेना चाहते हैं, कृपया परियोजना पृष्ठ पर जाएँ, जहाँ आप वार्ता में शामिल हो सकते हैं और विषय से सम्बंधित कार्य सूची देख सकते हैं।
 

लेख में सुधार

संपादित करें

संजीव जी इस लेख के ज्ञानसंदूक में अभी कई जगह अंग्रेज़ी में लिखा है। जब मैंने इसको बदलना चाहा तो देखा की मौर्य राजवंश के लिये अलग से ज्ञानसंदूक बना हुआ है। तो इसको ठीक कैसे किया जाये?‍‍‍ पीयूषवार्ता 05:51, 19 मई 2014 (UTC)उत्तर दें

पीयूष जी, आपको इसके लिए साँचा:मौर्य वंश ज्ञानसंदूक पर जाकर इसको सम्पादित करना होगा। यहाँ ध्यान रहे कई बार साँचे में पूर्ण सुधार करने के बाद भी पृष्ठ पर नया अवतरण दिखाई नहीं देता है उस अवस्था में आपको लेख का कैश खाली करना होगा। कैस खाली करने के लिए आप https://hi.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=लेख_का_शीर्षक&action=purge यहाँ "लेख का शीर्षक" को बदलें और पृष्ठ को पुनः खोलें। मौर्य राजवंश पृष्ठ का कैश खाली करने के लिए यहाँ पर क्लिक करें।☆★संजीव कुमार (✉✉) 08:06, 19 मई 2014 (UTC)उत्तर दें
धन्यवाद संजीव जी, मैने उसे ठीक कर दिया है। कैश खाली करने की जरूरत ही नहीं पड़ी। पीयूषवार्ता 15:01, 19 मई 2014 (UTC)उत्तर दें

Maurya vansh is belongs to Kshatriya . not gaderiya

संपादित करें

Gaderiya is diffrent . Maurya vansh is belongs to Kshatriya . there are too many Books they proven it. correct it... Ajay20061994 (वार्ता) 09:00, 16 अप्रैल 2023 (UTC)उत्तर दें

please cite the books here  तौसिफ  बातचीत? 09:09, 16 अप्रैल 2023 (UTC)उत्तर दें
Saptkhandi jaati nirnya(Part-2), Ashok shilalekh. Ajay20061994 (वार्ता) 09:50, 16 अप्रैल 2023 (UTC)उत्तर दें
Accroding to Historian Pandit J.P Chaudhary, Gangaprasad gupta, and wesleyan university professor william R. Pinch. Maurya Historically is Kshatriya. Now days they are divided according to their profession. Ajay20061994 (वार्ता) 09:54, 16 अप्रैल 2023 (UTC)उत्तर दें

Add some Greek historian references also

संपादित करें

Pliny quotes Megasthenes giving even larger figures of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 war elephants:

"But the Prasii [the inhabitants of Magadha, of whom Sandracottos was king [1]] surpass in power and glory every other people, not only in this quarter, but one may say in all India, their capital Palibothra, a very large and wealthy city, after which some call the people itself the Palibothri,--nay even the whole tract along the Ganges. Their king has in his pay a standing army of 600,000 foot-soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, and 9,000 elephants: whence may be formed some conjecture as to the vastness of his resources." Megasthenes, quoted in Pliny.[2]

Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement, and through a treaty sealed in 305 BC, Seleucus ceded the country around the river Indus, according to Strabo:

"The Indians occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants." Strabo 15.2.1(9)

Strabo further explains that a large part of Ariana, west of the Indus, was given by the Macedonians to the Indians:

"When Alexander invaded the country (...) the Indus River was the boundary between India and Ariana, which was situated next to India on the west and was in the possession of the Persians at that time; for later the Indians also held much of Ariana, having received it from the Macedonians." Strabo 15.10

Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received territory west of the Indus including southern Afghanistan and parts of Persia. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandhahar, in today's southern Afghanistan.

In exchange for this territory, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. A matrimonial alliance was also agreed upon (called Epigamia in ancient sources, meaning either the recognition of marriage between Indians and Greeks, or a dynastic alliance):

"He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya], king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship." Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55 [3]
"After having made a treaty with him (Sandrakotos) and put in order the Orient situation, Seleucos went to war against Antigonus." Justin XV.4.15[4]

In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka, is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court.[5]

Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus:

"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis, "The deipnosophists" Book I, chapter 32 [6]

Chandragupta turned his attention to Northwestern India (modern Pakistan), where he fought the satrapies (described as "prefects" in classical Western sources) left in place by Alexander (Justin), and assassinated two of his governors, Nicanor and Philip.[7] The satrapies he fought may have included Eudemus, ruler in western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE; Peithon, son of Agenor, ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for Babylon in 316 BCE. The Roman historian Justin described how Sandrocottus (Greek version of Chandragupta's name) conquered the northwest:

"India, after the death of Alexander, had assassinated his prefects, as if shaking the burden of servitude. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos, but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory, since, after taking the throne, he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination."
Junianus JustinusHistoires Philippiques Liber, XV.4.12-13 [8]
"He was of humble origin, but was pushing to acquiring the throne by the superior power of the mind. When after having offensed the king of Nanda by his insolence, he was condemned to death by the king, he was saved by the speed of his own feet"
Junianus JustinusHistoires Philippiques Liber, XV.4.15 [9]
"Later, as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander, a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame, and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. Having thus acquired royal power, Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory."
Junianus JustinusHistoires Philippiques Liber, XV.4.19 [10]

The shrewd Chanakya had trained Chandragupta under his expert guidance and together they planned the destruction of Dhana Nanda. Chandragupta then raised an army in the Northwest, assassinated the Macedonian prefects and destroyed their garrisons. Having consolidated power their, he pushed east. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka, sometimes identified with Porus.[11] This Himalayan alliance gave Chandragupta a composite and powerful army made up of Yavanas (Greeks), Kambojas, Shakas (Scythians), Kiratas, Parasikas and Bahlikas (Bactrians):

"Kusumapura was besieged from every direction by the forces of Parvata and Chandragupta: Shakas, Yavanas, Kiratas, Kambojas, Parasikas, Bahlikas and others, assembled on the advice of Canakya."
— Visakhadutta, Mudrarakshasa 2 [12]

However, some of the tribes named in the Mudrarakshasa, such as the Shakas and Hunas, appear in India much later than the time of Chandragupta Maurya, which makes it unclear which of these peoples were present in his army.[13] Nevertheless, with these frontier martial tribes under his command, Chandragupta fought Dhana Nanda and his general Bhadrasala in a series of battles, ending with the siege of the capital city Kusumapura[13] and the conquest of the Nanda Empire around 321 BC,[13] by the time he was about 20 years old.

Seleucus I Nicator, a Macedonian satrap of Alexander, reconquered most of Alexander's former empire and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55), until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta:

"Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia, Armenia, 'Seleucid' Cappadocia, Persis, Parthia, Bactria, Arabia, Tapouria, Sogdia, Arachosia, Hyrcania, and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus."
AppianHistory of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55 [14]

Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement, and through a treaty sealed in 305 BC, Seleucus ceded the country around the river Indus, according to Strabo:

"The Indians occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants."
StraboGeographica, 15.2.1(9) [15]

Strabo further explains that a large part of Ariana, west of the Indus, was given by the Macedonians to the Indians:

"When Alexander invaded the country (...) the Indus River was the boundary between India and Ariana, which was situated next to India on the west and was in the possession of the Persians at that time; for later the Indians also held much of Ariana, having received it from the Macedonians."

Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received territory west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, and the Balochistan province of Persia.[16][17] Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandhahar in southern Afghanistan.

In exchange for this territory, Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants, a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. A matrimonial alliance was also agreed upon (called Epigamia in ancient sources, meaning either the recognition of marriage between Indians and Greeks, or a dynastic alliance):

"He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya], king of the Indians, who dwelt on the banks of that stream, until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship."
AppianHistory of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55 [14]
"After having made a treaty with him (Sandrakotos) and put in order the Orient situation, Seleucos went to war against Antigonus."
Junianus JustinusHistoires Philippiques Liber, XV.4.15 [18]

As there are no records of an Indian princess in the abundant classical literature on the Seleucids, it is generally thought that the alliance went the other way around, and that a Seleucid princess may have been bethrothed to the Maurya Dynasty.[19][20][21] In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara, at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus, the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka the Great, is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court.[22]

Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty, Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents, such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus:

"And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous]. And Phylarchus confirms him, by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love."
Athenaeus of NaucratisDeipnosophistae, Book I, Chapter 32 [23]

Plutarch reports that he met with Alexander the Great, probably around Taxila in the northwest, and that he viewed the ruling Nanda dynasty in a very negative light:

"Androcottus, when he was a stripling, saw Alexander himself, and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country, since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth."
PlutarchParallel Lives, The Life of Alexander the Great 62-63 [24]
  • In the 4th century AD, Sanskrit author Vishakhadatta penned a seven-act play on Chandragupta's life, called Mudrarakshasa (Sanskrit: Signet Ring of the Rakshasa, the chief minister of the last Nanda king).
  • In 2001, the Indian Postal Department issued a Rs. 4 stamp commemorating the rule of Chandragupta.
  • A myth says, that after not being able to seize control in his first attempt, Chandragupta roamed the wilderness of India. Here, he watched through a window, a mother and a child. The child kept burning his hand while trying to eat a roti. The mother scolded the child and told him to eat from the edges, not the centre, because the centre will always be hotter. Chandragupta realized that the Nanda Empire could be considered as that roti. This caused him to change his tactics for seizing power. There is a similar myth in which the roti is replaced by khichdi.
  • On the Nickelodeon game show Legends of the Hidden Temple, one of the artifacts was the "Lion-Headed Bracelet of Chandragupta."

2405:201:6036:801D:6CF4:DB15:C323:42CD (वार्ता) 09:25, 21 मार्च 2024 (UTC)उत्तर दें

also add these further reads..
==Further reading==
  • Kosambi, D.D. An Introduction to the Study of Indian History, Bombay: Popular Prakashan, 1985
  • Bhargava, P.L. Chandragupta Maurya, New Delhi:D.K. Printworld, 160 pp., 2002.
  • Habib, Irfan. and Jha, Vivekanand. Mauryan India: A People's History of India,New Delhi:Tulika Books, 2004; 189pp
  • Vishakadatta, R.S. Pandit.Mudraraksasa (The Signet Ring of Rakshasa), New Delhi:Global Vision Publishing House, 2004, ISBN 81-8220-009-1, edited by Ramesh Chandra
  • Swearer, Donald. Buddhism and Society in Southeast Asia (Chambersburg, Pennsylvania : Anima Books, 1981) ISBN 0-89012-023-4
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K. A. Age of the Nandas and Mauryas (Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass, [1967] c1952) ISBN 0-89684-167-7
  • Bongard-Levin, G. M. Mauryan India (Stosius Inc/Advent Books Division May 1986) ISBN 0-86590-826-5
  • Chand Chauhan, Gian. Origin and Growth of Feudalism in Early India: From the Mauryas to AD 650 (Munshiram Manoharlal January 2004) ISBN 81-215-1028-7
  • Keay, John. India: A History (Grove Press; 1 Grove Pr edition May 10, 2001) ISBN 0-8021-3797-0
  • Radha Kumud Mukherji. Chandragupta Maurya aur Uska Kaal (Rajkamal Prakashan, Re Print 1990) ISBN-81-7171-088-1
2405:201:6036:801D:6CF4:DB15:C323:42CD (वार्ता) 09:38, 21 मार्च 2024 (UTC)उत्तर दें
  1. Strabo. XV. i. 35-36,--p. 702. Text
  2. FRAGMENT LVI, Pliny. Natural History VI. 21. 8-23. 11.
  3. Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  4. Justin XV.4.15
  5. Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21
  6. Athenaeus . Deipnosophists I.32
  7. Radha Kumud Mookerji, Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 4th ed. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1988 [1966]), 31, 28–33.
  8. Justin XV.4.12-13
  9. Justin XV.4.15
  10. Justin XV.4.19
  11. John Marshall Taxila, p. 18, and al.
  12. From the French translation, in "Le Ministre et la marque de l'anneau", ISBN 2-7475-5135-0
  13. सन्दर्भ त्रुटि: <ref> का गलत प्रयोग; Mookerji नाम के संदर्भ में जानकारी नहीं है।
  14. Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars 55
  15. Strabo 15.2.1(9)
  16. Vincent Arthur Smith (1998). Asoka. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120613031.
  17. Walter Eugene Clark (1919). "The Importance of Hellenism from the Point of View of Indic-Philology", Classical Philology 14 (4), p. 297-313.
  18. Justin XV.4.15
  19. सन्दर्भ त्रुटि: <ref> का गलत प्रयोग; Majumdar नाम के संदर्भ में जानकारी नहीं है।
  20. W. W. Tarn (1940). "Two Notes on Seleucid History: 1. Seleucus' 500 Elephants, 2. Tarmita", The Journal of Hellenic Studies 60, p. 84-94.
  21. Partha Sarathi Bose (2003). Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy. Gotham Books. ISBN 1592400531.
  22. Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21
  23. Ath. Deip. I.32
  24. Plutarch 62-63
पृष्ठ "मौर्य राजवंश" पर वापस जाएँ।