सन १९८९ की क्रांतियों के कारण १९८० के दशक के अन्त से १९९० के दशक के आरम्भ तक एक क्रान्ति की लहर पैदा हुई जिसने मध्य एवं पूर्वी यूरोप में साम्यवाद को धराशायी कर दिया। इस काल को प्रायः "साम्यवाद का पतन" कहा जाता है।[3]

१९८९ की क्रांतियाँ
शीत युद्ध का एक भाग
File:Thefalloftheberlinwall1989.JPG
नवम्बर १९८९ में बर्लिन की दीवार का गिरना
तिथी 4 जून 1989 – 26 दिसम्बर 1991
(2 साल, 6 माह, 3 सप्ताह और 1 दिन)
जगह मध्य एवं पूर्वी यूरोप और एशिया
कारण *राजनीतिक दमन
लक्ष्य *आर्थिक सुधार, जैसे राज्य के स्वामित्व वाले उद्योगों का निजीकरण
विधि
परिणाम
नागरिक संघर्ष के पक्षकार
पूर्वी गुट के देशों के नागरिक


{{{टिप्पणी}}}notes

सन्दर्भसंपादित करें

  1. Kochanowicz, Jacek (2006). Berend, Ivan T. (संपा॰). Backwardness and Modernization: Poland and Eastern Europe in the 16th-20th Centuries. Collected studies: Studies in East-Central Europe. 858li. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. पृ॰ 198. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 9780754659051. Within the communist world, certain strata of population were particularly sensitive to Western influences. Late communism produced sizable, specific middle classes of relatively well-educated professionals, technicians and even highly skilled blue-collar workers. [...] These classes had no attachment whatsoever to Marxist-Leninist ideology, while they became attracted to the Western way of life. Many members of the ruling 'nomenklatura' shared the same sentiments, as Western consumerism and individualism seemed more attractive to them than communist collective Puritanism. There were two very important consequences of this, one economic, and the second political. The economic one was the attractiveness of consumerism [...]. The political consequence was the pressure to increase the margins of political freedom and public space.
  2. Cross, Gary S. (2000). "1: The Irony of the Century". An All-consuming Century: Why Commercialism Won in Modern America. New York: Columbia University Press. पृ॰ 8. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 9780231113120. For East Europeans, the promise of mass consumption was preferable to the nightmare of solidarity even if it meant also the dominance of money and the private control of wealth. In reality, the fall of communism had more to do with the appeals of capitalist consumerism than political democracy.
  3. Gehler, Michael; Kosicki, Piotr H.; Wohnout, Helmut (2019). Christian Democracy and the Fall of Communism. Leuven University Press. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 9789462702165.