विकिपीडिया:IPA for Arabic
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the Modern Standard form of the Arabic language in Wikipedia articles. The charts also have Egyptian Arabic sounds, though not necessarily all other varieties of Arabic. Actual pronunciations differ, depending on the native variety of Arabic of the speaker, as Modern Standard Arabic is not anyone's native language.
See Arabic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Arabic.
The transliteration of consonants has the standard of DIN 31635 written first.
- That phoneme is represented by the Arabic letter ǧīm (ج) and has many standard pronunciations: [ɡ] in Egypt and some regions in Yemen and Oman, as well as, in Morocco and Algeria in some words, especially colloquially; [ʒ] in most of the Levant and most other places across North Africa; [d͡ʒ] in most of the Arabian Peninsula, north Algeria and restricted areas of the Levant. In the Arabian Peninsula it is sometimes softened to [ʒ]. Some regions in Sudan and Yemen have a [ɡʲ] or [ɟ].
- In Egypt, Sudan and Levant, Modern Standard Arabic /θ, ð/ are often approximated to [s, z] and always represent [s, z] in loanwords in local dialects.
- ظ represents [zˤ~z], in Egypt, Levant and Sudan, for both of local dialects and Modern Standard Arabic.
- If not ج, other letters such as: साँचा:Rtl-lang, साँचा:Rtl-lang, साँचा:Rtl-lang, साँचा:Rtl-lang, साँचा:Script/Arabic or साँचा:Script/Arabic, may be used to represent /ɡ/.
- In Modern Standard Arabic, [ɫ] is only found in Allah, but it's found in other dialects normally. In most geographic regions, speakers lack the sound even when pronouncing Modern Standard Arabic.
- Mostly, /q/ is absent and is substituted with [ʔ] in Egyptian Arabic, as well as, Levantine Arabic and sometimes Moroccan Arabic, with some exceptions. In some geographic regions, local dialects substituted /q/ with [ɡ] or [ɢ].
- In the northern most of Egypt and in Lebanon, /r/ is in free variation between [ɾ] and [r].
- The emphatic /rˤ/ exists in North Africa.
- In Egyptian Arabic, some speakers lack certain emphatic consonants altogether.
- In some geographic regions, it is uvular.
- The letter ژ is very rarely used for /ʒ/ and is usually substituted with ج.
- چ is used to represent: /ʒ/ in Egypt; /ɡ/ in Israel; /t͡ʃ/ in Iraq. چ as used for /t͡ʃ/ is rare and mostly used only in Iraq (and less likely for other Gulf Arabics), but usually تش is used instead. Elsewhere it is usually realized as [t]+[ʃ] and a buffer vowel might be inserted in between, before or after the consonants. It might be approximated to [ʃ].
- Broad transcription only corresponds to Modern Standard Arabic.
- The front vowel /æ/ corresponds to: [a] in Levant; [ɛ] or [e] in Northwest Africa.
- In Egypt, Sudan and sometimes other regions, the final form is always ى, both in handwriting and in print, representing both final /-iː/ and /-aː/.
- The phoneme /a(ː)/ is retracted to [ɑ] and [ɑː] in the environment of the emphatic (usually pharyngealized) consonants, namely /tˤ dˤ sˤ ðˤ/ and also sometimes /r/, but not in all standards of Modern Standard Arabic. Some standards also include /ʁ χ/.
- [ɐ] is an allophone of final /a/ (ة) in Iraq and Persian Gulf pronunciation.
- Short [e, o] can normally occur anywhere in Egyptian Arabic. In Egypt, short [e, o] occur as allophones of initial and medial short /i, u/. This is the common pronunciation for Modern Standard Arabic in some regional standards, as well.
- In Egypt, Modern Standard Arabic diphthongs /aj, aw/ are often monophthongized to [eː, oː].
- [ɪ] is an allophone of short initial and medial /i/ in some pronunciations.
- [ʊ] is an allophone of short /u/ in some pronunciations.
See alsoसंपादित करें
- The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005) Symbols for all languages are shown on this one-page chart.
- Chart of Arabic transliteration systems (non-normative), including DIN 31635, Revision 2.2 (2008-02-25)