मुख्य मेनू खोलें

नीचे दी गयी तालिका में विकिपीडिया के लेखों में हिन्दी और उर्दू के उच्चारण का प्रतिनिधित्व करने वाली अंतर्राष्ट्रीय ध्वन्यात्मक वर्णमाला (आईपीए) को दर्शाया गया है।

हिन्दुस्तानी में स्वरों की ध्वनि की और गहन विवेचना के लिए हिन्दी-उर्दू स्वर विज्ञान देखें।

व्यंजन
आईपीए हिन्दी हिन्दी उदाहरण उर्दु अंगेजी समकक्ष
b ب abash
bʱ क्त بھ abhor
[1] د ado (closer to French d)
ʱ [1] नुष دھ adhere
ɖ [1] मरू ڈ guard
ɖʱ [1] क्कन ڈھ guardhouse
ج hedge
ʱ रना جھ hedgehog
f फ़ ف food
ɡ मला گ agate
ɡʱ گھ pigheaded
h ح head (final only)
ɦ ahead
j ي yak
k ک scan
kʰ کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ चर ڻ burner
(Sanskrit; often [n])
ŋ अंगूर - bank
p پ span
pʰ پھ pan
(often allophonic with [f] in Hindi)
q क़ ق a k in the throat
(Urdu; often [k] in Hindi)
r ر trilled r
ɽ ड़ रबड़ ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ ढ़ ढ़ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h
s س sue
ʂ worship
(Sanskrit; often [ʃ])
ʃ ش shoe
[1] ت stable (closer to French t)
ʰ [1] تھ table
ʈ [1] खना ٹ art
ʈʰ [1] साठस ٹھ art-historian
چ catch
ʰ چھ choose
ʋ[2] व' و varies between w and v
x ख़ خ Bach
(Urdu; often [kʰ] in Hindi)
ɣ ग़ غ like a French r
(Urdu; often [ɡ] in Hindi)
z ज़ ज़मीन ز zen
ʒ झ़ ژ pleasure
स्वर
आईपीए हिन्दी उर्दु अंगेजी समकक्ष
आ, पा آ, ـا Spanish or French a to English bra
ए, पे ے between yell and Yale
ɛː ऐ, पै yell
ə अ, प ـَ nut
[3] ई, पी ی feet
ɪ [3] इ, पि ـِ dill
ओ, पो و old
ɔː औ, पौ law
[3] ऊ, पू loot
ʊ [3] उ, पु ـُ look
 ̃ ں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)


Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant

टिप्पणीसंपादित करें

  1. To an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Hindi-Urdu speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Hindi-Urdu [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Hindi-Urdu speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Hindi-Urdu. Some words, such as vrat ('व्रत', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('पकवान', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.