विकिपीडिया:IPA for Turkish and Azerbaijani

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Turkish phonology, Azerbaijani language, and Turkmen language for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of these languages.

IPA Examples English equivalent
तुर्की अज़रबैजान तुर्कमेनिस्तान
b b about
d d ado
d͡ʒ c (Turkish/Azeri), j (Turkmen) dodge
f ɸ f food
ɡ g (Turkish/Turkmen), q (Azeri) [1] ago
ɟ g[1] gear
ɰ ɣ ğ [2]
j ğ[2] [2]
h [3] h home
j y (Turkish/Azeri), ý (Turkmen) yet
k q k skill; (Turkmen) k in the throat
c [4] k k[1] ski
l l lâle 'tulip'[1] leaf
ɫ lala 'tutor'[1] wool
m m much
n n not
ŋ ň (Turkmen) wing
p p span
ɾ r (US) pretty; Scottish r
s θ s sue; think
ʃ ş shoe
t t table
t͡ʃ ç catch
v [5] β v (Turkish/Azeri), w (Turkmen) vase, how[5]; as Spanish lava
x x (Azeri), h (Turkmen)[4] Bach
z ð z zone; then
ʒ j (Turkish/Azeri), ž (Turkmen) beige
IPA Examples English equivalent
ä dal 'branch' Spanish or French a to English dull
ɑ Azərbaycan (Azeri) bra
æ Azərbaycan (Azeri) Äzerbeýjan (Turkmen) cat
e gelin 'bride' very
i dil 'tongue' deal
o yol 'way' old
ø gör 'to see' German ö
u uçak 'airplane' loot but shorter
ɯ ılık (Turkish/Azeri) 'mild' ylyk (Turkmen) rather like roses, or the second vowel of doesn't
y güneş 'sun' German ü or French u

IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı [torbaˈlɯ] 'with bag'
Torbalı [ˈtorbalɯ] (a place name)


ː â, û, ğ[2] âlem [aːlem] 'world'
  1. [c ~ k] (Turkish) / [c ~ q] (Azeri) / [k ~ q] (Turkmen), ~ ɡ](Turkish/Azeri) / ~ ʁ] (Turkmen), [l ~ ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels ([e], [i], [ø], [y]), while [k/q, ɡ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels ([a], [o], [u], [ɯ]).
  2. Between front vowels ([e], [i], [ø], [y]), ğ is similar to English y. Between back vowels ([a], [o], [u], [ɯ]), it is a very light [ɰ] sound, like Spanish trigo. Word-finally or before a consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
  3. In Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels ([e], [i], [ø], [y]) while [x] occurs before back vowels ([a], [o], [u], [ɯ]).
  4. In many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, [c] at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç] as in huge.
  5. /v/ may be [w] after a vowel or in some loanwords.
  6. In Turkish proper, excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable, and other words on the last syllable.