"Hebrew" may refer either to Modern Israeli Hebrew, classical languages such as Biblical or Mishnaic Hebrew, or to various pronunciation traditions used in liturgical settings.

Modern Hebrewसंपादित करें

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Modern/Israeli Hebrew language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Since Modern Hebrew has both non-Oriental and Oriental pronunciation, certain letters may be transcribed differently depending on the background of the speaker. See Hebrew phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Hebrew.

Note: An image of the chart is also available.

IPA: Hebrew Consonantsसंपादित करें

IPA Letter(s) English approximate Romanization
b בּ (Bet) but, web b
d ד (Dalet) dark, odd d
[1] ג׳ (Gimel with geresh) gin, joy, edge ǧ or j
f פ ף (Fei) fool, enough, leaf f or
ɡ ג (Gimel) go, get, beg g
h ה (Hei) hen h
ħ[2] ח (Chet) as in Arabic Hussein, pronounced by Oriental Hebrew speakers or ch
j י (Yud) yes y
k כּ (Kaph) skin, skip k
l ל (Lamed) left l
m מ ם (Mem) man, tam m
n נ ן (Nun) no, tin n
p פּ (Pei) speak, spin p
q[2] ק (Qoph) as qāḍī in Literary Arabic, but in Modern Hebrew, normally pronounced as skin q or k
ʁ[3] ר (Resh) (guttural R) (Rhotic
consonant) ex. run
r
s ס (Samech)
שׂ (Sin)
see, city, pass s
ʃ שׁ (Shin) she, sure, emotion, leash š or sh
t ט (Tet)
ת (Tav)
sting, stick, start t
ts[1] צ ץ (Tsadi)
תס (Tav-Samech)
תשׂ (Tav-Sin)
tsunami, pizza, cats ts (or tz)
[1] צ׳ (Tsadi with geresh) chair, nature, teach č or ch
v ב (Vet)
ו (Vav)
וו (double Vav)
voice, have v or /w
w[4] וו (double Vav)
ו (Vav)
we w
χ ח (Chet)[2]
כ ך (Chaph)
Similar to Scottish loch / or ch/kh
z ז (Zayin) zoo, rose z
ʒ ז׳ (Zayin with geresh) pleasure, beige ž
ʔ א (Aleph)
ע (Ayin)[2]
uh-(ʔ)oh ʼ or '
ʕ[2] ע (Ayin) as in Arabic ʿAbdallah, pronounced by Oriental Hebrew speakers ʻ or '

IPA: Hebrew Vowelsसंपादित करें

IPA Letter(s) English approximate Romanization
ä ָ (Kamatz),   (Patach) father a
  (Zeire),   (Segol),   (Shva) bed, head, said e
i י (Hiriq-Yud),  (Hiriq) city, see, ski, leaf i
ֹ (Holam alone), וֹ (with any mater lectionis) story o
u וּ (Vav with shuruk),   (Kubutz) soon, through u

IPA: Hebrew Diphthongsसंपादित करें

IPA Letter(s) English approximate Romanization
ei י  (Segol-Yud),   (Zeire) day, pain, table ei
ai י  (Patach-Yud), ָי (Kamatz-Yud) fine, why ai
oi וֹי (Vav with holam male-Yud) loin, boy oi
ui וּי (Vav with shuruq-Yud) (boot+yes) ui
ao (rare) או (Alef-Vav) town, mouse ao
ju (rare) יוּ (Yud-Vav with shuruk) cute, beauty, circular yu
ij (rare) יְ (Hiriq-Yud with Shva Nach)
i.e. "נִיְלֵן" [nijˈlen]
(bee+yes) iy

IPA: Marginal Soundsसंपादित करें

IPA Letter(s) English approximate Romanization
ð ד׳ (Dalet with geresh) this, breathe, father th
ŋ נג (Nun-Gimel), ringer, sing, drink ng
θ ת׳ (Tav with geresh) thing, teeth th

IPA: Other symbols used in transcription of Hebrew pronunciationसंपादित करें

IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), e.g. אֹכֶל food /ˈʔoχel/, אוֹכֵל‏ eating (participle) /ʔoˈχel/
ˌ Secondary stress, e.g. הֲאֻמְנָם? oh really? /ˌhaʔumˈnam/
ː Long vowels (in Tiberian Hebrew) can be transcribed using the IPA gemination sign ː, e.g. the word hand would be יָד /jaːd/ in absolute state and יַד־ /jad/ in construct state.[5] Indicating normative consonant gemination is done with a double consonant, e.g. גַּנָּב a thief /ɡanˈnav/ not /ɡaˈnːav/

Notesसंपादित करें

  1. /dʒ, ts, tʃ/ are officially written with a tie-bar in the IPA /d͡ʒ, t͡s, t͡ʃ/, respectively. The tie-bar is omitted for simplification.
  2. In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /ħ, ʕ, q/ merged with /χ, ʔ, k/, respectively, while /ħ, ʕ/ are still distinguished by Oriental Hebrew speakers.
  3. /ʁ/ is uvular for most speakers, though some speakers, mostly Orientals, retain an alveolar pronunciation: [r]~[ɾ].
  4. In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /w/ is rare and only appears in a few loanwords. Usually it is approximated to [v] and written וו intervocalically.
  5. Vowel length and quality in Tiberian Hebrew is a matter of debate; this is just one possible example

See alsoसंपादित करें

External linksसंपादित करें

साँचा:Hebrew language