विकिपीडिया:IPA for Catalan
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Catalan language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. There are two major standards, one of Catalan (based in Barcelona, encompassing most Eastern Catalan features) and one of Valencian (based in Southern Valencia, encompassing most Western Catalan features). Neither variant is preferred over the other at Wikipedia except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant (such as a place in the Valencian Community or a Catalan artist).
See Catalan phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Catalan.
Notes संपादित करें
- Voiced obstruents /b d g v z dz ʒ dʒ/ are devoiced ([p t k f s ts ʃ tʃ]) at the end of an utterance. In some dialects (particularly North-Western Catalan and Central Catalan), /p t k/ and /b/ may be elided when occurring utterance-finally after a nasal consonant (e.g. amb, seient, sang), in the case of /t/, in some of these dialects, this has extended also after liquids (e.g. alt ,hort). सन्दर्भ त्रुटि:
<ref>अमान्य टैग है; "Devoice" नाम कई बार विभिन्न सामग्रियों में परिभाषित हो चुका है
- In Catalan and Valencian, /b d ɡ/ become lenited [β ð ɣ] (that is, fricatives or approximants of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced (or devoiced) stops, not dissimilar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/. In regular speech in Valencian, intervocalic [ð] may be elided (e.g. fideuada/fideuà).
- In most of Majorcan the velar plosives, /k/ and /g/, become palatal, [c] and [ɟ], before front vowels (/i e ɛ a/) and word-finally (e.g. figuera [fiˈɟeɾə], sac [ˈsac]) in some of these dialects, this has extended to all environments except before liquids and back vowels; e.g. sang [ˈsaɲс].
- Catalan orthography distinguishes between ‹ll› (representing /ʎ/), and ‹l·l› (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of ‹l·l› is ignored altogether.
- ‹l› is always dark [ɫ] in Eastern Catalan. In other dialects, like Valencian, it may vary allophonically with the alveolar lateral approximant, [l]~[ɫ], as it does in English. In Catalan and Valencian, /l/ is assimilated to [ʎ] before palatal consonants (e.g. Elx, àlgid), and in La Franja Catalan (Aragon) /l/ is palatalized to [ʎ] in consonant clusters, such as /bl pl gl kl fl/; e.g. plou [ˈpʎɔw].
- The nasal consonants /n m ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, /n/ assimilates to the consonant's place of articulation (e.g. [ŋ] occurs before a velar consonant, [ɲ] before a palatal consonant, [m] before a labial consonant, while [n] is found elsewhere).
- The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r› with, [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, in compounds and at the end of an utterance; [ɾ] is found elsewhere. Utterance-final /r/ is pronounced as [ɾ] in Valencian. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, word final /r/ is generally dropped (e.g. parlar [pərˈɫa], fer [ˈfe]), still and all there are many exceptions (e.g. per [pər]). In most cases, word final ‹r› is pronounced when the following word begins with a vowel (e.g. fer-hi [ˈfeɾi]; notice here intervocalic ‹r› is a tap, /ɾ/).
- In Catalan and Valencian an assimilation process occurs wherein two identical sibilants appearing in sequence within a word are reduced to a single consonant. For details, see Catalan orthography.
- In some dialects, /dz/ is deaffricated to [z] in verbal forms ending in -itzar; e.g. analitzar [ənəɫiˈza]/[analiˈza(ɾ)]. Similarly, /ts/, which only occurs word-initially in loanwords (e.g. tsar, tsuga) is deaffricated in these dialects.
- The pronunciation of words with the digraph ‹ix› varies; an absent [j] is generally more common in Eastern Catalan dialects (e.g. caixa [ˈkaʃə]) and [j]-retention is more common in Valencian and North-Western Catalan (e.g. caixa [ˈkajʃa]), though there are exceptions.
- While /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ are often described simply as "postalveolar" by many sources, phonetic work done by Daniel Recasens shows the postalveolar sibilants to be alveolo-palatal ([ɕ], [ʑ], [tɕ] and [dʑ], respectively). Nevertheless, since ‹ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ› are overwhelmingly used in the linguistic literature on Catalan and Valencian, those characters are also used at Wikipedia.
- Several dialects have /v/ as a separate phoneme, in particular, Balearic, Alguerese, standard Valencian, and certain parts of Tarragona; e.g. viu [ˈviw]. Betacism (that is, merging of /b/ and /v/) is general in the rest of Catalan areas (e.g. viu [ˈbiw]).
- Marginal consonants are found in loanwords, largely from Spanish but also from Caló, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek, English, German, etc.
- Other than in loanwords and interjections, the letter ‹h› is always silent.
- All Catalan dialects contrast seven stressed vowels /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/ (though Balearic, especially Majorcan, contrasts eight stressed vowels; the former ones, plus /ə/). In Alguerese and Northern Catalan open-mid and close-mid vowels may merge into mid vowels [e̞] and [o̞]. In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
- Eastern Catalan (Central Catalan, Northern Catalan, Balearic and Alguerese): /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ reduce to [ə] (though in Alguerese /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ merge to [a]) while /o/ and /ɔ/ reduce to [u] (however, in most of Majorcan /ɔ/ and /o/ merge to [o]).
- Western Catalan (North-Western Catalan and Valencian): /ɛ/ reduces to [e] and /ɔ/ reduces to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed ‹e› and ‹o› may reduce to [a] and [u] respectively. Furthermore, unstressed ‹e› may reduce to [i] in some other cases. In these dialects, open-mid vowels [ɛ] and [ɔ] can also appear in unstressed syllables.
- While in most dialects /a/ is central [ä], it is front [a] in many Balearic dialects.
- The mid-open vowels /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ are lower in Valencian and most Balearic dialects, that is, in these dialects the phonetic realization of /ɛ/ approaches [æ], while /ɔ/ is as low as [ɒ].
- In most of Balearic, especially Majorcan, /ə/ can appear in stressed position; e.g. sec [ˈsəc]. This corresponds to stressed /ɛ/ or /e/ in other dialects.
- Many Valencian dialects feature a sort of vowel harmony when a syllable with stressed /ɛ/ or /ɔ/ precedes another syllable with unstressed [a] or [e]; e.g. dona/es [ˈdɔnɔ(s)]~[ˈdɔnɛ(s)] and terra/es [ˈtɛrɛ(s)]~[ˈtɛrɔ(s)].
- In some Valencian and North-Western Catalan dialects there are some instances where unstressed ‹e› and ‹o› may be reduced:
- Unstressed ‹e› merges with [a] before a nasal or sibilant consonant (e.g. enveja, espill, eixugar), in monosyllabic clitics, and in some environments before any consonant (e.g. terròs, clevill, trepitjar). Likewise, unstressed ‹e› merges into [i], in lexical derivation with -eixement/-aixement (e.g. coneixement). In some subvarieties /e/ is raised to [i] in all instances when in contact with palatal consonants; e.g. senyor [siˈɲo(ɾ)].
- Unstressed ‹o› merges with [u] before a bilabial consonant (e.g. cobert), when it precedes a stressed syllable with a high vowel (e.g. conill), in contact with palatal consonants (e.g. Josep), and in monosyllabic clitics.
- In North-Western Catalan word final unstress ‹a› and ‹e› may reduce to [ɛ]; e.g. Lleida [ˈʎejðɛ], dona/es [ˈdɔnɛ(s)]; terra/es [ˈtɛrɛ(s)].
- In most of Valencian, preposition amb merges with en. Also, some verbal forms ending in unstressed ‹a› are pronounced as [e] (e.g. verbs in third person singular: cantava, cantaria, canta, thus in Valencian first person singular (jo) cantava [kanˈtava] contrasts with third person singular (ell) cantava [kanˈtave], a similar process also occurs with gender neutral words; e.g. artista (m.) [aɾˈtiste] and artista (f.) [aɾˈtista]).
- Marginal vowels are found in Northern Catalan in loanwords and interferences from Occitan and French.
- In Northern Catalan /u/ becomes [ø] in some instances in contact with palatal consonants (e.g. fulles [ˈføjəs]~[ˈfuʎəs]). In other cases it may appear in French interferences, such as sœur or jeunesse (instead of Catalan germana and joventut).
- The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.
- Sonorants /m n l ʎ/ (except /ɲ/) are the most common geminated consonants (e.g. setmana, cotna), /ʎː/ does not occur in Valencian and Balearic Catalan (e.g. motlle/motle). In north-western and eastern varieties plosives /b/ and /g/ may also be geminated in certain environments, instead of usual lenition (e.g. poble [ˈpɔbːɫə], regla [ˈregːɫə]). Moreover affricates are particularly long in intervocalic position in many dialects; e.g. metge [ˈmeddʒə].
See also संपादित करें
References संपादित करें
- Burguet Ardiaca, Francesc (1980). Introducció a la fonologia, fonètica i ortografia del català. Mataró (Barcelona): Robrenyo. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 84-7466-025-4. (कैटलन)
- Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56
- Recasens i Vives, Daniel (1991). Fonètica descriptiva del català : assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i consonantisme del català al segle XX. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 8472831728. (कैटलन)
- Romeu i Juvé, Xavier (1983). Manual de fonologia catalana. Barcelona: Barcanova. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 847533119X. (कैटलन)
- Veny, Joan (1978). Els Parlars. Barcelona: Dopesa. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 8472353885. (कैटलन)
- Wheeler, Max W (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0199258147. (अंग्रेज़ी में)
- "L'estàndard oral valencià". Valencia: Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL). पाठ "Pronunciació valenciana]