यहाँ ऐतिहासिक दृष्टि से महत्त्वपूर्ण तकनीकी खोजों की समय के सापेक्ष सूची दी गयी है।

Paleolithic Eraसंपादित करें

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(rail)]]: [[George

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तृतीय सहस्राब्दीसंपादित करें

इक्कीसवीं शताब्दीसंपादित करें

2000संपादित करें

इन्हें भी देखेंसंपादित करें

सन्दर्भसंपादित करें

  • Asimov, Isaac, "Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery", Harper & Row, 1989. ISBN 0-06-015612-0
  • De Bono, Edward, "Eureka! An Illustrated History of Inventions from the Wheel to the Computer", Thames & Hudson, 1974.
  • Gowlett, John, "Ascent to Civilization", McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. ISBN 0-07-544312-0
  • Platt, Richard, "Eureka!: Great Inventions and How They Happened", 2003.

बाहरी कड़ियाँसंपादित करें

सन्दर्भसंपादित करें

  1. Stone age man used dentist drill Archived 2009-04-22 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News.
  2. Kryss Katsiavriades and Talaat Qureshi, Inventions - 3000 BC to 2000 BC Archived 2006-09-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 521.
  4. Joseph Needham (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2, p. 361. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  5. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 516.
  6. "Paper - one of the most important inventions of the last two millennia". मूल से 7 मई 2010 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 11 जनवरी 2008.
  7. C. Wayne Smith, Joe Tom Cothren (1999). Cotton: Origin, History, Technology, and Production, p. viii. John Wiley and Sons. Technology & Industrial Arts. ISBN 0-471-18045-9.
  8. Richard Nelson Frye. Golden Age of Persia, p. 163
  9. Ahmad Y Hassan, Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources Archived 2007-07-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. Otto Mayr (1970). The Origins of Feedback Control, MIT Press.
  11. Teun Koetsier (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators", Mechanism and Machine theory 36, p. 590-591.
  12. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0-911119-43-4.
  13. The invention of cosmetics Archived 2011-06-15 at the Wayback Machine. 1001 Inventions.
  14. David A. King, "Islamic Astronomy", in Christopher Walker (1999), ed., Astronomy before the telescope, p. 167-168. British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2733-7.
  15. Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  16. Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World Archived 2015-12-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 11 Mar 2006.
  17. ओ'कॉनर, जॉन; रॉबर्टसन, एडमण्ड, "Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr Al-Khujandi", मैक्ट्यूटर हिस्ट्री ऑफ़ मैथेमैटिक्स, युनिवर्सिटी ऑफ़ सैंट एण्ड्रूज़.
  18. Ronald Watkins. Unknown Seas, p. 15.
  19. Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (April 1960). "Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology", The American Historical Review 65 (3), p. 519.
  20. Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc..."
  21. Piero Ariotti (Winter, 1968). "Galileo on the Isochrony of the Pendulum", Isis 59 (4), p. 414.
  22. Ingrid Hehmeyer and Aliya Khan (2007). "Islam's forgotten contributions to medical science", Canadian Medical Association Journal 176 (10).
  23. Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshhold (sic) Of A New Millennium – II Archived 2017-03-24 at the Wayback Machine, The Milli Gazette.
  24. Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslem Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), p. 1-15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
  25. A. I. Makki. "Needles & Pins", AlShindagah 68, Januray-February 2006.
  26. Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 191.
  27. Khwarizm Archived 2010-01-04 at the Wayback Machine, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  28. Robert E. Hall (1973). "Al-Khazini", Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Vol. VII, p. 346.
  29. Marshall Clagett (1961). The Science of Mechanics in the Middle Ages, p. 64. University of Wisconsin Press.
  30. Nicholas J. Wade, Stanley Finger (2001), "The eye as an optical instrument: from camera obscura to Helmholtz's perspective", Perception 30 (10), p. 1157-1177.
  31. Dr. A. Zahoor (1997). Al-Zarqali (Arzachel) Archived 2007-12-17 at the Wayback Machine, University of Indonesia.
  32. Ahmad Y Hassan, Flywheel Effect for a Saqiya Archived 2010-10-07 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. Islam, Knowledge, and Science. Archived 2008-01-19 at the Wayback Machine University of Southern California.
  34. Linear astrolabe Archived 2008-04-29 at the Wayback Machine, ब्रिटैनिका विश्वकोष.
  35. Abdel Aziz al-Jaraki (2007), When Ridhwan al-Sa’ati Anteceded Big Ben by More than Six Centuries Archived 2009-07-23 at the Wayback Machine, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  36. Georges Ifrah (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quatum Computer, p. 171, Trans. E.F. Harding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (See [1] Archived 2006-10-08 at the Wayback Machine)
  37. Ahmad Y Hassan. The Crank-Connecting Rod System in a Continuously Rotating Machine Archived 2013-03-12 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. Professor Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (cf. The Automata of Al-Jazari Archived 2003-04-21 at the Wayback Machine, Topkapi Palace Museum, Istanbul.)
  39. Ahmad Y Hassan. The Origin of the Suction Pump - Al-Jazari 1206 A.D. Archived 2008-02-26 at the Wayback Machine
  40. A 13th Century Programmable Robot. Archived 2007-06-29 at the Wayback Machine University of Sheffield.
  41. Arslan Terzioglu (2007). "The First Attempts of Flight, Automatic Machines, Submarines and Rocket Technology in Turkish History", The Turks (ed. H. C. Guzel), p. 804-810.
  42. Ahmad Y Hassan (1976). Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, p. 34-35. Instiute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.
  43. "SA MOTORING HISTORY - TIMELINE" (PDF). Government of South Australia. मूल (PDF) से 14 जून 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 11 जनवरी 2008.
  44. Setright, L. J. K. (2004). Drive On!: A Social History of the Motor Car. Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-698-7.
  45. ""Benefit to humanity"". मूल से 19 दिसंबर 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 11 जनवरी 2008.
  46. Who Invented The Tank? Archived 2008-02-20 at the Wayback Machine - Bovington Tank Museum
  47. [John Brockman, editor. The Greatest Inventions of the Past 2000 Years. Phoenix. 2000]
  48. David Lazarus (1995). 'Japan's Edison' Is Country's Gadget King : Japanese Inventor Holds Record for Patent. International Herald Tribune.
  49. "Inventing Email" (PDF). मूल से 27 सितंबर 2007 को पुरालेखित (PDF). अभिगमन तिथि 11 जनवरी 2008.